March 27

1350 - While besieging Gibraltar, Alfonso XI of Castile died of the Black Death. 

1794 - The U.S. Congress and President Washington authorized the creation of the U.S. Navy. 

1802 - The Treaty of Amiens was signed ending the French Revolutionary War. 

1814 - U.S. troops under Gen. Andrew Jackson defeated the Creek Indians at Horshoe Bend in Northern Alabama. 

1836 - In Goliad, TX, about 350 Texan prisoners, including their commander James Fannin, were executed under orders from Gen. Antonio López de Santa Anna. An estimated 30 Texans escaped execution. 

1836 - The first Mormon temple was dedicated in Kirtland, OH. 

1841 - The first steam fire engine was tested in New York City. 

1860 - The corkscrew was patented by M.L. Byrn. 

1866 - U.S. President Andrew Johnson vetoed the civil rights bill, which later became the 14th amendment. 

1884 - The first long-distance telephone call was made from Boston to New York. 

1899 - The first international radio transmission between England and France was achieved by the Italian inventor G. Marconi. 

1900 - The London Parliament passed the War Loan Act that gave 35 million pounds to the Boer War cause in South Africa. 

1900 - The Russian army mobilized 250,000 troops for active duty. 

1901 - Filipino rebel leader Emilio Aguinaldo was captured by the U.S. 

1904 - Mary Jarris "Mother" Jones was ordered by Colorado state authorities to leave the state. She was accused of stirring up striking coal miners. 

1907 - French troops occupied Oudja, Morocco, as a punitive action for the murder of French Dr. Muchamp. 

1912 - The first cherry blossom trees were planted in Washington, DC. The trees were a gift from Japan. 

1917 - The Seattle Metropolitans, of the Pacific Coast League of Canada, defeated the Montreal Canadiens and became the first U.S. hockey team to win the Stanley Cup. 

1931 - Actor Charlie Chaplin received France’s Legion of Honor decoration. 

1933 - About 55,000 people staged a protest against Hitler in New York City. 

1933 - In the U.S., the Farm Credit Administration was authorized. 

1941 - Tokeo Yoshikawa arrived in Oahu, HI, and began spying for Japan on the U.S. Fleet at Pearl Harbor. 

1942 - The British raided the Nazi submarine base at St. Nazaire, France. 

1944 - One-thousand Jews left Drancy, France, for the Auschwitz concentration camp. 

1944 - Thousands of Jews were murdered in Kaunas, Lithuania. 

1946 - Four-month long strikes at both General Electric and General Motors ended with a wage increase. 

1952 - The U.S. Eighth Army reached the 38th parallel in Korea, the original dividing line between the two Koreas. 

1955 - Steve McQueen made his network TV debut on "Goodyear Playhouse." 

1958 - Nikita Khrushchev became the chairman of the Soviet Council of Ministers in addition to First Secretary of the Communist Party. 

1958 - The U.S. announced a plan to explore space near the moon. 

1964 - An earthquake in Alaska killed 114 people and registered 8.4 on the Richter Scale

1968 - Yuri Gagarin, the first man to orbit the earth, died in a plane crash. 

1976 - Washington, DC, opened its subway system. 

1977 - About 570 people died when a KLM 747 and a Pan Am 747 collided with each other on a foggy runway on the Canary Island of Tenerife. 

1985 - Billy Dee Williams received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. 

1988 - The U.S. Senate ratified the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty. 

1989 - The U.S. anti-missile satellite failed the first test in space. 

1992 - Police in Philadelphia, PA, arrested a man with AIDS on charges that he may have infected several hundred teenage boys with HIV through sexual relations. 

1993 - In China, Communist Party leader Jiang Zemin was appointed President. 

1995 - Maurizo Gucci was shot to death outside his office in Milan. 

1997 - Russian workers, nearly 2 million, held a nationwide strike to protest unpaid wages. 

1997 - In Australia, Governor-General William Deane signed a bill to overturn a 1996 Northern Territory act to legalize assisted suicides. The 1996 act was the first in the world to permit assisted suicides. 

1997 - Dexter King met with James Earl Ray. Ray was in prison for the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King. Dexter King believes that Ray had nothing to do with the assassination. 

1998 - In the U.S., the FDA approved the prescription drug Viagra. It was the first pill for male impotence. 

1998 - Top civilian aircraft makers in France, Spain, Germany and Britain agreed to create single European aerospace and defense company. 

1998 - Ax-wielders killed at least 52 people in southern Algeria, most of which were toddlers. 

2002 - Rodney Dangerfield received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. 

2004 - NASA successfully launched an unpiloted X-43A jet that hit Mach 7 (about 5,000 mph). 

2006 - Zacarias Moussaoui testified in his federal trail that he was the supposed to hijack a fifth airplane on September 11, 2001, and fly it into the White House. 

2007 - NFL owners voted to make instant replay a permanent officiating tool.

March 26

1026 - Conrad II was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope John XIX. 

1799 - Napoleon captured Jaffa Palestine. 

1780 - The British Gazette and Sunday Monitor was published for the first time. It was the first Sunday newspaper in Britain. 

1793 - The Holy Roman Emperor formally declared war on France. 

1804 - The U.S. Congress ordered the removal of Indians east of the Mississippi to Louisiana

1804 - The Louisiana Purchase was divided into the District of Louisiana and the Territory of Orleans. 

1854 - Charles III, duke of Parma, was attacked by an assassin. He died the next day. 

1871 - The Paris Commune was formally set up. 

1878 - Hastings College of Law was founded. 

1885 - Eastman Kodak (Eastman Dry Plate and Film Co.) produced the first commercial motion picture film in Rochester, NY. 

1898 - In South Africa, the world's first game reserve, the Sabi Game reserve, was designated. 

1909 - Russian troops invaded Persia to support Muhammad Ali as shah in place of the constitutional government. 

1910 - The U.S. Congress passed an amendment to the 1907 Immigration Act that barred criminals, paupers, anarchists and carriers of disease from settling in the U.S. 

1913 - During the Balkan War, the Bulgarians took Adrianople. 

1917 - At the start of the battle of Gaza, the British cavalry withdrew when 17,000 Turks blocked their advance. 

1937 - Spinach growers in Crystal City, TX, erected a statue of Popeye. 

1938 - Herman Goering warned all Jews to leave Austria. 

1942 - The Germans began sending Jews to Auschwitz in Poland. 

1945 - The battle of Iwo Jima ended. 

1945 - In the Aleutians, the battle of Komandorski began when the Japanese attempted to reinforce a garrison at Kiska and were intercepted by a U.S. naval force. 

1951 - The U.S. Air Force flag was approved. The flag included the coat of arms, 13 white stars and the Air Force seal on a blue background. 

1953 - Dr. Jonas Salk announced a new vaccine that would prevent poliomyelitis. 

1956 - Red Buttons made his debut as a television actor in "Studio One" on CBS television. 

1958 - The U.S. Army launched America's third successful satellite, Explorer III

1962 - The U.S. Supreme Court supported the 1-man-1-vote apportionment of seats in the State Legislature. 

1969 - The TV movie "Marcus Welby" was seen on ABC-TV. It was later turned into a series. 

1971 - Sheikh Mujibur Rahman declared East Pakistan to be the independent republic of Bangladesh. 

1971 - "Cannon" premiered on CBS-TV as a movie. It was turned into a series later in the year. 

1972 - The Los Angeles Lakers broke a National Basketball Association (NBA) record by winning 69 of their 82 games. 

1973 - Egyptian President Anwar Sadat took over the premiership and said "the stage of total confrontation (with Israel) has become inevitable." 

1973 - Women were allowed on the floor of the London Stock Exchange for the first time. 

1979 - The Camp David treaty was signed by Israel and Egypt that ended the 31-year state of war between the countries. 

1981 - In Great Britain, the Social Democratic Party (SDP) gained official recognition. 

1982 - Ground breaking ceremonies were held in Washington, DC, for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. 

1983 - The U.S. performed a nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site. 

1989 - The first free elections took place in the Soviet Union. Boris Yeltsin was elected. 

1991 - The presidents of Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil and Uruguay signed an agreement that established the Southern Cone Common Market, a free-trade zone, by January 1, 1995. 

1992 - In Indianapolis, heavyweight boxing champion Mike Tyson was found guilty of rape. He was sentenced to 6 years in prison. He only served three. 

1995 - Seven of the 15 European Union states abolished border controls. 

1996 - The International Monetary Fund approved a $10.2 billion loan for Russia to help the country transform its economy. 

1997 - The 39 bodies of Heaven's Gate members are found in a mansion in Rancho Santa Fe, CA. The group had committed suicide thinking that they would be picked up by a spaceship following behind the comet Hale-Bopp. 

1998 - In the U.S., the Federal government endorses new HIV test that yields instant results. 

1998 - Unisys Corp. and Lockheed Martin Corp. pay a $3.15 million fine for selling spare parts at inflated prices to the U.S. federal government. 

1999 - The macro virus "Melissa" was reported for the first. 

1999 - In Michigan, Dr. Jack Kevorkian was convicted of second-degree murder for giving a terminally ill man a lethal injection and putting it all on videotape on September 17, 1998 for "60 Minutes." 

2000 - The Seattle Kingdome was imploded to make room for a new football arena. 

2000 - In Russia, acting President Vladimir Putin was elected president outright. He won a sufficient number of votes to avoid a runoff election. 

2007 - The design for the "Forever Stamp" was unveiled by the U.S. Postal Service.

March 25

0421 - The city of Venice was founded. 

0708 - Constantine began his reign as Catholic Pope. 

1306 - Robert the Bruce was crowned king of Scotland. 

1409 - The Council of Pisa opened. 

1609 - Henry Hudson left on an exploration for Dutch East India Co. 

1634 - Lord Baltimore founded the Catholic colony of Maryland. 

1655 - Puritans jailed Governor Stone after a military victory over Catholic forces in the colony of Maryland

1655 - Christian Huygens discovered Titan. Titan is Saturn's largest satellite. 

1668 - The first horse race in America took place. 

1669 - Mount Etna in Sicily erupted destroying Nicolosi. 20,000 people were killed. 

1700 - England, France and Netherlands ratify the 2nd Extermination Treaty. 

1753 - Voltaire left the court of Frederik II of Prussia. 

1774 - English Parliament passed the Boston Port Bill. 

1776 - The Continental Congress authorized a medal for General George Washington. 

1802 - France, Netherlands, Spain and England signed the Peace of Amiens. 

1807 - The first railway passenger service began in England. 

1807 - British Parliament abolished the slave trade. 

1813 - The frigate USS Essex flew the first U.S. flag in battle in the Pacific. 

1814 - The Netherlands Bank was established. 

1820 - Greece freedom revolt against anti Ottoman attack 

1821 - Greece gained independence from Turkey. 

1856 - A. E. Burnside patented Burnside carbine. 

1857 - Frederick Laggenheim took the first photo of a solar eclipse. 

1865 - The SS General Lyon at Cape Hatteras caught fire and sank. 400 people were killed. 

1865 - During the American Civil War, Confederate forces captured Fort Stedman in Virginia

1879 - Japan invaded the kingdom of Liuqiu (Ryukyu) Islands, formerly a vassal of China. 

1895 - Italian troops invaded Abyssinia (Ethiopia). 

1898 - The Intercollegiate Trapshooting Association was formed in New York City. 

1900 - The U.S. Socialist Party was formed in Indianapolis. 

1901 - 55 people died when a Rock Island train derailed near Marshalltown, IA

1901 - The Mercedes was introduced by Daimler at the five-day "Week of Nice" in Nice, France. 

1901 - It was reported in Washington, DC, that Cubans were beginning to fear annexation. 

1902 - Irving W. Colburn patented the sheet glass drawing machine. 

1902 - In Russia, 567 students were found guilty of "political disaffection." 95 students were exiled to Siberia. 

1904 - E.D. Morel and Roger Casement formed the Congo Reform Association in Liverpool. 

1905 - Rebel battle flags that were captured during the American Civil War were returned to the South. 

1905 - Russia received Japan's terms for peace. 

1907 - Nicaraguan troops took Tegucigalpa, the capital of Honduras. 

1908 - Wilhelm II paid an official visit to Italy's king in Venice. 

1909 - In Russia, revolutionary Popova was arrested on 300 murder charges. 

1911 - In New York City, 146 women were killed in fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Company in New York City. The owners of the company were indicted on manslaughter charges because some of the employees had been behind locked doors in the factory. The owners were later acquitted and in 1914 they were ordered to pay damages to each of the twenty-three families that had sued. 

1913 - The Palace Theatre opened in New York City. 

1915 - 21 people died when a U.S. F-4 submarine sank off the Hawaiian coast. 

1919 - The Paris Peace Commission adopted a plan to protect nations from the influx of foreign labor. 

1923 - The British government granted Trans-Jordan autonomy. 

1931 - Fifty people were killed in riots that broke out in India. Gandhi was one of many people assaulted. 

1931 - The Scottsboro Boys were arrested in Alabama

1936 - The Detroit Red Wings defeated the Montreal Maroons in the longest hockey game to date. The game lasted for 2 hours and 56 minutes. 

1940 - The U.S. agreed to give Britain and France access to all American warplanes. 

1941 - Yugoslavia joined the Axis powers. 

1941 - The first paprika mill was incorporated in Dollon, SC

1947 - A coalmine explosion in Centralia, IL, killed 111 people. 

1947 - John D. Rockefeller III presented a check for $8.5 million to the United Nations for the purchase of land for the site of the U.N. center. 

1953 - The USS Missouri fired on targets at Kojo, North Korea. 

1954 - RCA manufactured its first color TV set and began mass production. 

1957 - The European Economic Community was established with the signing of the Treaty of Rome. 

1960 - A guided missile was launched from a nuclear powered submarine for the first time. 

1965 - Martin Luther King Jr. led a group of 25,000 to the state capital in Montgomery, AL. 

1966 - The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the "poll tax" was unconstitutional. 

1970 - The Concorde made its first supersonic flight. 

1971 - The Boston Patriots became the New England Patriots. 

1972 - Bobby Hull joined Gordie Howe to become only the second National Hockey League player to score 600 career goals. 

1975 - King Faisal of Saudi Arabia was shot to death by a nephew. The nephew, with a history of mental illness, was beheaded the following June. 

1981 - The U.S. Embassy in San Salvador was damaged when gunmen attacked using rocket propelled grenades and machine guns. 

1981 - The Down Jones industrial avarage of selected stocks on the New York Stock Exchanged closed at its highest level in more than eight years. 

1982 - Wayne Gretzky became the first player in the NHL to score 200 points in a season. 

1983 - The U.S. Congress passed legislation to rescue the U.S. social security system from bankruptcy. 

1985 - It was reported that a U.S. Army Major stationed in East Germany had been shot and killed by a Soviet Border Guard. 

1986 - U.S. President Ronald Reagan ordered emergency aid for the Honduran army. U.S. helicopters took Honduran troops to the Nicaraguan border. 

1988 - Robert E. Chambers Jr. pled guilty to first-degree manslaughter in the death of 18-year-old Jennifer Levin. The case was known as New York City's "preppie murder case." 

1989 - In Paris, the Louvre reopened with I.M. Pei's new courtyard pyramid. 

1990 - A fire in Happy Land, an illegal New York City social club, killed 87 people. 

1990 - Estonia voted for independence from the Soviet Union. 

1991 - Iraqi President Saddam Hussein launched a major counter-offensive to recapture key towns from Kurds in northern Iraq. 

1992 - Soviet cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev returned to Earth after spending 10 months aboard the orbiting Mir space station. 

1993 - President de Klerk admitted that South Africa had built six nuclear bombs, but said that they had since been dismantled. 

1994 - United States troops completed their withdrawal from Somalia. 

1995 - Boxer Mike Tyson was released from jail after serving 3 years. 

1996 - An 81-day standoff by the antigovernment Freemen began at a ranch near Jordan, MT. 
1996 - The U.S. issued a newly redesigned $100 bill for circulation. 

1998 - A cancer patient was the first known to die under Oregon's doctor-assisted suicide law. 

1998 - The FCC nets $578.6 million at auction for licenses for new wireless technology. 

1998 - Quinn Pletcher was found guilty on charges of extortion. He had threatened to kill Bill Gates unless he was paid $5 million. 

2002 - The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) dismissed complaints against Walt Disney Co.'s ABC network broadcast of a Victoria's Secret fashion show in November 2001. 

2004 - The U.S. Senate voted (61-38) on the Unborn Victims of Violence Act (H.R. 1997) to make it a separate crime to harm a fetus during the commission of a violent federal crime.

March 24

1379 - The Gelderse war ended. 

1545 - German Parliament opened in Worms. 

1550 - France and England signed the Peace of Boulogne. 

1629 - The first game law was passed in the American colonies, by Virginia. 

1664 - A charter to colonize Rhode Island was granted to Roger Williams in London. 

1720 - In Paris, banking houses closed due to financial crisis. 

1765 - Britain passed the Quartering Act that required the American colonies to house 10,000 British troops in public and private buildings. 

1792 - Benjamin West became the first American artist to be selected president of the Royal Academy of London. 

1828 - The Philadelphia & Columbia Railway was authorized as the first state owned railway. 

1832 - Mormon Joseph Smith was beaten, tarred and feathered in Ohio. 

1837 - Canada gave blacks the right to vote 

1848 - A state of siege was proclaimed in Amsterdam. 

1868 - Metropolitan Life Insurance Company was formed. 

1878 - The British frigate Eurydice sank killing 300. 

1880 - The first "hail insurance company" was incorporated in Connecticut. It was known as Tobacco Growers’ Mutual Insurance Company. 

1882 - In Berlin, German scientist Robert Koch announced the discovery of the tuberculosis germ (bacillus). 

1883 - The first telephone call between New York and Chicago took place. 

1898 - The first automobile was sold. 

1900 - Mayor Van Wyck of New York broke the ground for the New York subway tunnel that would link Manhattan and Brooklyn. 

1900 - In New Jersey, the Carnegie Steel Corporation was formed. 

1904 - Vice Adm. Tojo sank seven Russian ships as the Japanese strengthened their blockade of Port Arthur. 

1905 - In Crete, a group led by Eleutherios Venizelos claimed independence from Turkey. 

1906 - In Mexico, the Tehuantepec Istmian Railroad opened as a rival to the Panama Canal. 

1906 - The "Census of the British Empire" revealed that England ruled 1/5 of the world. 

1911 - In Denmark, penal code reform abolished corporal punishment. 

1920 - The first U.S. coast guard air station was established at Morehead City, NC. 

1924 - Greece became a republic. 

1927 - Chinese Communists seized Nanking and break with Chiang Kai-shek over the Nationalist goals. 

1932 - Belle Baker hosted a radio variety show from a moving train. It was the first radio broadcast from a train. 

1934 - U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt signed a bill granting future independence to the Philippines. 

1938 - The U.S. asked that all powers help refugees fleeing from the Nazis. 

1944 - In Rome, The Gestapo rounded up innocent Italians and shot them to death in response to a bomb attack that killed 32 German policemen. Over 300 civilians were executed. 

1946 - The Soviet Union announced that it was withdrawing its troops from Iran. 

1947 - The U.S. Congress proposed the limitation of the presidency to two terms. 

1954 - Britain opened trade talks with Hungary. 

1955 - Tennessee Williams' play "Cat on a Hot Tin Roof" debuted on Broadway. 

1955 - The first oil drill seagoing rig was put into service. 

1960 - A U.S. appeals court ruled that the novel, "Lady Chatterly’s Lover", was not obscene and could be sent through the mail. 

1972 - Great Britain imposed direct rule over Northern Ireland. 

1976 - The president of Argentina, Isabel Peron, was deposed by her country's military. 

1980 - In San Salvador, Archbishop Oscar Arnulfo Romero was shot to death by gunmen as he celebrated Mass. 

1981 - "Nightline" with Ted Koppel premiered. 

1982 - Soviet leader Leonid L. Brezhnev stated that Russia was willing to resume border talks with China. 

1985 - Thousands demonstrated in Madrid against the NATO presence in Spain. 

1988 - Former national security aides Oliver L. North and John M. Poindexter and businessmen Richard V. Secord and Albert Hakim pled innocent to Iran-Contra charges. 

1989 - The Exxon Valdez spilled 240,000 barrels (11 million gallons) of oil in Alaska's Prince William Sound after it ran aground. 

1989 - The U.S. decided to send humanitarian aid to the Contras. 

1990 - Indian troops left Sri Lanka. 

1991 - The African nation of Benin held its first presidential elections in about 30 years. 

1993 - In Israel, Ezer Weizman, an advocate of peace with neighboring Arab nations, was elected President. 

1995 - Russian forces surrounded Achkoi-Martan. It was one of the few remaining strongholds of rebels in Chechenia. 

1995 - The U.S. House of Representatives passed a welfare reform package that made the most changes in social programs since the New Deal. 

1997 - The Australian parliament overturned the world's first and only euthanasia law. 

1998 - In Jonesboro, AR, two young boys open fire at students from woods near a school. Four students and a teacher were killed and 10 others were injured. The two boys were 11 and 13 years old cousins. 

1998 - A former FBI agent said papers found in James Earl Ray's car supports a conspiracy theory in the assassination of Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. 

1999 - In Kenya, at least 31 people were killed when a passenger train derailed. Hundreds were injured. 

1999 - NATO launched air strikes against Yugoslavia (Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo and Vojvodina). The attacks marked the first time in its 50-year history that NATO attacked a sovereign country. The bombings were in response to Serbia's refusal to sign a peace treaty with ethnic Albanians who were seeking independence for the province of Kosovo. 

1999 - The 7-mile tunnel under Mont Blanc in France was an inferno after a truck carrying flour and margarine caught on fire. At least 30 people were killed. 

2001 - Apple Computer Inc's operating system MAC OS X went on sale. 

2002 - Thieves stole five 17th century paintings from the Frans Hals Museum in the Dutch city of Haarlem. The paintings were worth about $2.6 million. The paintings were works by Jan Steen, Cornelis Bega, Adriaan van Ostade and Cornelis Dusart. 

2005 - The government of Kyrgyzstan collapsed after opposition protesters took over President Askar Akayev's presidential compound and government offices. 

2005 - Sandra Bullock received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. 

2006 - In Spain, the Basque separatist group ETA announced a permanent cease-fire.

March 23

1026 - Koenraad II crowned himself king of Italy. 

1066 - The 18th recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet took place. 

1490 - The first dated edition of Maimonides "Mishna Torah" was published. 

1657 - France and England formed an alliance against Spain. 

1775 - American revolutionary Patrick Henry declared, "give me liberty, or give me death!" 

1794 - Josiah G. Pierson patented a rivet machine. 

1806 - Explorers Lewis and Clark, reached the Pacific coast, and began their return journey to the east. 

1808 - Napoleon's brother Joseph took the throne of Spain. 

1835 - Charles Darwin reached Los Arenales, in the Andes. 

1836 - The coin press was invented by Franklin Beale. 

1839 - The first recorded use of "OK" [oll korrect] was used in Boston's Morning Post. 

1840 - The first successful photo of the Moon was taken. 

1848 - Hungary proclaimed its independence of Austria. 

1857 - Elisha Otis installed the first modern passenger elevator in a public building. It was at the corner of Broome Street and Broadway in New York City. 

1858 - Eleazer A. Gardner patented the cable streetcar. 

1861 - John D. Defrees became the first Superintendent of the United States Government Printing Office. 

1861 - London's first tramcars began operations. 

1868 - The University of California was founded in Oakland, CA. 

1880 - John Stevens patented the grain crushing mill. The mill increased flour production by 70 percent. 

1881 - The Boers and Britain signed a peace accord ending the first Boer war. 

1881 - A gas lamp caused a fire in an opera house in Nice, France. 70 people were killed. 

1889 - U.S. President Harrison opened Oklahoma for white colonization. 

1901 - Dame Nellie Melba, revealed the secret of her now famous toast. 

1901 - It was learned that Boers were starving in British concentration camps in South Africa. 

1901 - Shots were fired at Privy Councilor Pobyedonostzev, who was considered to be Russia's most hated man. 

1902 - In Italy, the minimum legal working age was raised from 9 to 12 for boys and from 11 to 15 for girls. 

1903 - The Wright brothers obtained an airplane patent. 

1903 - U.S. troops were sent to Honduras to protect the American consulate during revolutionary activity. 

1909 - British Lt. Shackleton found the magnetic South Pole. 

1909 - Theodore Roosevelt began an African safari sponsored by the Smithsonian Institution and National Geographic Society. 

1910 - In the Canary Islands, women offered candidates for legislative elections. 

1912 - The Dixie Cup was invented. 

1917 - Austrian Emperor Charles I made a peace proposal to French President Poincare. 

1917 - In the Midwest U.S., four tornadoes kill 211 people over a four day period. 

1918 - Lithuania proclaimed independence. 

1919 - Benito Mussolini founded his Fascist political movement in Milan, Italy. 

1920 - Britain denounced the U.S. because of their delay in joining the League of Nations. 

1920 - The Perserikatan Communist of India (PKI) political party was formed. 

1921 - Arthur G. Hamilton set a new parachute record when he safely jumped from 24,400 feet. 

1922 - The first airplane landed at the U.S. Capitol in Washington, DC

1925 - The state of Tennessee enacted a law that made it a crime for a teacher in any state-supported public school to teach any theory that was in contradiction to the Bible's account of man's creation. 

1932 - In the U.S., the Norris-LaGuardia Act established workers' right to strike. 

1933 - The German Reichstag adopted the Enabling Act. The act effectively granted Adolf Hitler dictatorial legislative powers. 

1934 - The U.S. Congress accepted the independence of the Philippines in 1945. 

1936 - Italy, Austria & Hungary signed the Pact of Rome. 

1937 - The L.A. Railway Co. started using PCC streetcars. 

1940 - "Truth or Consequences" was heard on radio for the first time. 

1942 - The Japanese occupy the Andaman Islands. 

1942 - During World War II, the U.S. government began evacuating Japanese-Americans from West Coast homes to detention centers. 

1950 - "Beat the Clock" premiered on CBS-TV. 

1951 - U.S. paratroopers descended from flying boxcars in a surprise attack in Korea. 

1956 - Pakistan became the first Islamic republic. It was still within the British Commonwealth. 

1956 - Sudan became independent. 

1957 - The U.S. Army sold the last of its homing pigeons. 

1965 - America's first two-person space flight took off from Cape Kennedy with astronauts Virgil I. Grissom and John W. Young aboard. The craft was the Gemini 3

1965 - The Moroccan Army shot at demonstrators. About 100 people were killed. 

1967 - Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. called the Vietnam War the biggest obstacle to the civil rights movement. 

1970 - Mafia "Boss" Carlo Gambino was arrested for plotting to steal $3 million. 

1972 - The U.S. called a halt to the peace talks on Vietnam being held in Paris. 

1972 - Evel Knievel broke 93 bones after successfully jumping 35 cars. 

1973 - The last airing of "Concentration" took place. The show had been on NBC for 15 years. 

1980 - The deposed shah of Iran, Muhammad Riza Pahlavi, left Panama for Egypt. 

1981 - U.S. Supreme Court upheld a law making statutory rape a crime for men but not women. 

1981 - CBS Television announced plans to reduce "Captain Kangaroo" to a 30-minute show each weekday morning. 

1983 - U.S. President Reagan first proposed development of technology to intercept enemy missiles. The proposal became known as the Strategic Defense Initiative and "Star Wars." 

1983 - Dr. Barney Clark died after 112 days with a permanent artificial heart. 

1989 - A 1,000-foot diameter asteroid missed Earth by 500,000 miles. 

1989 - Joel Steinberg was sentenced to 25 years for killing his adopted daughter. 

1989 - Two electrochemists, Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischman, announced that they had created nuclear fusion in a test tube at room temperature. 

1990 - Former Exxon Valdez Captain Joseph Hazelwood was ordered to help clean up Prince William Sound and pay $50,000 in restitution for the 1989 oil spill. 

1993 - U.N. experts announced that record ozone lows had been registered over a large area of the Western Hemisphere. 

1994 - Luis Donaldo Colosio, Mexico's leading presidential candidate, was assassinated in Tijuana. Mario Aburto Martinez was arrested at the scene and confessed to the killing. 

1994 - Wayne Gretzky broke Gordie Howe's National Hockey League (NHL) career record with his 802nd goal. 

1994 - Howard Stern formally announced his Libertarian run for New York governor. 

1996 - Taiwan held its first democratic presidential elections. 

1998 - Germany's largest bank pledged $3.1 million to Jewish foundations as restitution for Nazi looting. 

1998 - The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that term limits for state lawmakers were constitutional. 

1998 - Russian President Boris Yeltsin fired his Cabinet. 

1998 - The movie "Titanic" won 11 Oscars at the Academy Awards. 

1998 - The German company Bertelsmann AG agreed to purchase the American publisher Random House for $1.4 billion. The merger created the largest English-language book-publishing company in the world. 

1999 - Paraguay's Vice President Luis Maria Argana was shot to death by two gunmen. 

1999 - NATO Secretary-General Javier Solana gave formal approval for air strikes against Serbian targets. 

1999 - Near Mandi Bahauddin, Pakistan, a bus fell into a fast-moving canal. Nine were confirmed dead, 31 were missing and presumed dead, and 20 were injured. 

2001 - Russia's orbiting Mir space station plunged into the South Pacific after its 15-years of use.