September 8

1565 - A Spanish expedition established the first permanent European settlement in North America at present-day St. Augustine, FL. 

1664 - The Dutch surrendered New Amsterdam to the British, who then renamed it New York. 

1866 - The first recorded birth of sextuplets took place in Chicago, IL. The parents were James and Jennie Bushnell. 

1892 - An early version of "The Pledge of Allegiance" appeared in "The Youth's Companion." 

1893 - In New Zealand, the Electoral Act 1893 was passed by the Legislative Council. It was consented by the governor on September 19 giving all women in New Zealand the right to vote. 

1935 - U.S. Senator Huey P. Long, "The Kingfish" of Louisiana politics, was shot and mortally wounded. He died two days later. 

1945 - In Washington, DC, a bus equipped with a two-way radio was put into service for the first time. 

1945 - Bess Myerson of New York was crowned Miss America. She was the first Jewish contestant to win the title. 

1951 - A peace treaty with Japan was signed by 48 other nations in San Francisco, CA. 

1952 - The Ernest Hemingway novel "The Old Man and the Sea" was published. 

1960 - NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL, was dedicated by U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower. The facility had been activated in July earlier that year. 

1966 - NBC-TV aired the first episode of "Star Trek" entitled "The Man Trap". The show was canceled on September 2, 1969. 

1971 - In Washington, DC, the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts was inaugurated. The opening featured the premiere of Leonard Bernstein's "Mass." 

1973 - Hank Aaron hit his 709th home run. 

1974 - U.S. President Ford granted an unconditional pardon to former U.S. President Nixon. 

1975 - In Boston, MA, public schools began their court-ordered citywide busing program amid scattered incidents of violence. 

1986 - Herschel Walker made his start in the National Football League (NFL) after leaving the New Jersey Generals of the USFL. 

1997 - America Online acquired CompuServe. 

1998 - Mark McGwire (St. Louis Cardinals) hit his 62nd home run of the season. He had beaten a record that had stood for 37 years by Roger Maris. McGwire would eventually reach 70 home runs on September 27. 

1999 - Russia's Mission Control switched off the Mir space station's central computer and other systems to save energy during a planned six months of unmanned flights. 

September 7

1812 - Napoleon defeated the Russian army of Alexander I at the battle of Borodino. 

1813 - The nickname "Uncle Sam" was first used as a symbolic reference to the United States. The reference appeared in an editorial in the New York's Troy Post. 

1822 - Brazil declared its independence from Portugal. 

1880 - George Ligowsky was granted a patent for his device that threw clay pigeons for trapshooters. 

1888 - Edith Eleanor McLean became the first baby to be placed in an incubator. 

1896 - A.H. Whiting won the first automobile race held on a racetrack. The race was held in Cranston, RI. 

1901 - The Boxer Rebellion began in China ending the Peace of Beijing. 

1921 - Margaret Gorman of Washington, DC, was crowned the first Miss America in Atlantic City, NJ. 

1927 - Philo T. Farnsworth succeeded in transmitting an image through purely electronic means by using an image dissector. 

1930 - The cartoon "Blondie" made its first appearance in the comic strips. 

1940 - London received its initial rain of bombs from Nazi Germany during World War II. 

1942 - During World War II, the Russian army counter attacked the German troops outside the city of Stalingrad. 

1963 - The National Professional Football Hall of Fame was dedicated in Canton, OH. 

1966 - The final episode of the original "The Dick Van Dyke Show" was aired on CBS-TV. 

1971 - "The Beverly Hillbillies" was seen for the final time on CBS-TV. 

1977 - The Panama Canal treaties were signed by U.S. President Carter and General Omar Torrijos Herrera. The treaties called for the U.S. to turn over control of the canal's waterway to Panama in the year 2000. 

1979 - ESPN, the Entertainment and Sports Programming Network, made its debut on cable TV. 

1983 - In Ireland, voters approved a constitutional ammendment that banned abortion. 

1984 - American Express Co. issued the first of its Platinum charge cards. 

1986 - Dan Marino of the Miami Dolphins threw his 100th career touchdown pass, in only his 44th NFL game, which set a NFL record. 

1986 - President Augusto Pinochet survived an assassination attempt made by guerrillas. 

1986 - Desmond Tutu was the first black to be installed to lead the Anglican Church in southern Africa. 

1987 - Erich Honecker became the first East German head of state to visit West Germany. 

1989 - Legislation was approved by the U.S. Senate that prohibited discrimination against the handicapped in employment, public accommodations, transportation and communications. 

1995 - U.S. Senator Bob Packwood announced that he would resign after 27 years in the Senate. 

1998 - Mark McGwire set a new major league baseball record for most homeruns hit in a single season. The previous record was 61 set in 1961. 

1999 - Viacom Inc. announced that it had plans to buy CBS Corp. 

2001 - Barry Bonds (San Francisco Giants) became the only the fifth player in major league baseball history to hit 60 home runs in a season. (California)

September 6

1620 - The Pilgrims left on the Mayflower from Plymouth, England to settle in the New World. 

1819 - Thomas Blanchard patented a machine called the lathe. 

1837 - The Oberlin Collegiate Institute of Ohio went co-educational. 

1876 - The Southern Pacific rail line from Los Angeles to San Francisco was completed. 

1899 - Carnation processed its first can of evaporated milk. 

1901 - U.S. President William McKinley was shot and mortally wounded (he died eight days later) by Leon Czolgosz. Czolgosz, an American anarchist, was executed the following October. 

1909 - Robert Peary, American explorer, sent word that he had reached the North Pole. He had reached his goal five months earlier. 

1939 - South Africa declared war on Germany. 

1941 - Jews in German-occupied areas were ordered to wear the Star of David with the word "Jew" inscribed. The order only applied to Jews over the age of 6. 

1943 - The youngest player to appear in an American League baseball game was pitcher Carl Scheib of the Philadelphia Athletics. Scheib was 16 years, eight months and five days old. 

1944 - During World War II, the British government relaxed blackout restrictions and suspended compulsory training for the Home Guard. 

1948 - Queen Juliana of the Netherlands was crowned. 

1952 - In Montreal, Canadian television began broadcasting. 

1959 - The first Barbie Doll was sold by Mattel Toy Corporation. 

1972 - Rick DeMont lost the gold medal he received in a 400-meter swimming event because a banned drug was found in his system during routine drug testing. 

1975 - Martina Navratilova requested political asylum while in New York for the U.S. Open Tennis Tournament. 

1978 - James Wickwire and Louis Reichardt reached the top of the world's second largest mountain, Pakistan's K-2. They were the first Americans to reach the summit. 

1990 - Iraq warned that anyone trying to flee the country without permission would be put in prison for life. 

1991 - The State Council of the Soviet Union recognized the independence of the Baltic states. 

1991 - The name St. Petersburg was restored to Russia's second largest city. The city was founded in 1703 by Peter the Great. The name has been changed to Petrograd (1914) and to Leningrad (1924). 

1992 - A 35-year old man died ten weeks after receiving a transplanted baboon liver. 

1993 - Renault of France and Volvo of Sweden announced they were merging. Volvo eventually canceled the deal the following December. 

1995 - U.S. Senator Bob Packwood was expelled by the Senate Ethics Committee. 

1995 - Cal Ripken played his 2,131st consecutive game setting a new record. Lou Gehrig previously held the record. 

1996 - Eddie Murray (Baltimore Orioles) hit his 500th career home run during a game against the Detroit Tigers. He was only the third person to have at least 3,000 hits and 500 home runs. 

2000 - The U.N. Millennium Summit began in New York. It was the largest gathering of world leaders in history with more than 150 present. 

2001 - The U.S. Justice Department announced that it was seeking a lesser antitrust penalty and would not attempt to break up Microsoft. 

2001 - Ebay Inc. was found not liable for copyright infringement because bootleg copies of a Charles Manson documentary had been sold on the site. 

2002 - In New York, the U.S. Congress convened at Federal Hall for a rare special session. The session was held in New York to express the nation's mourning for the loss on September 11, 2001 and unity in the war against terrorism. 

2002 - At the Smithsonian American Art Museum, the exhibition "George Catlin and His Indian Gallery" went on view. The exhibit contained over 400 objects.

September 5

1698 - Russia's Peter the Great imposed a tax on beards. 

1774 - The first session of the U.S. Continental Congress convenes in Philadelphia. The delegates drafted a declaration of rights and grievances, organized the Continental Association, and elected Peyton Randolph as the first president of the Continental Congress. 

1793 - In France, the "Reign of Terror" began. The National Convention enacted measures to repress the French Revolutionary activities. 

1836 - Sam Houston was elected as the first president of the Republic of Texas. 

1877 - Sioux chief Crazy Horse was killed by the bayonet of a U.S. soldier. The chief allegedly resisted confinement to a jail cell. 

1881 - The American Red Cross provided relief for disaster for the first time. The disaster was the Great Fire of 1881 in Michigan. 

1882 - The first U.S. Labor Day parade was held in New York City. 

1885 - Jake Gumper bought the first gasoline pump to be manufactured in the U.S. 

1900 - France proclaimed a protectorate over Chad. 

1901 - The National Association of Professional Baseball Leagues was formed in Chicago, IL. It was the first organized baseball league. 

1905 - The Treaty of Portsmouth was signed by Russia and Japan to end the Russo-Japanese War. The settlement was mediated by U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt in New Hampshire. 

1906 - Bradbury Robinson executed the first legal forward pass in football. Robinson threw the ball to Jack Schneider of St. Louis University in a game against Carroll College. 

1914 - Babe Ruth hit his first home run as a professional player in the International League. 

1914 - The Battle of the Marne began. The Germans, British and French fought for six days killing half a million people. 

1917 - Federal raids were carried out in 24 cities on International Workers of the World (IWW) headquarters. The raids were prompted by suspected anti-war activities within the labor organization. 

1930 - Charles Creighton and James Hagris completed the drive from New York City to Los Angeles and back to New York City all in reverse gear. The trip took 42 days in their 1929 Ford Model A. 

1938 - The NBC Red network broadcast "Life Can Be Beautiful" for the first time. 

1939 - The U.S. proclaimed its neutrality in World War II. 

1945 - Iva Toguri D'Aquino was arrested. D'Aquino was suspected of being the wartime radio propagandist "Tokyo Rose". She served six years and was later pardoned by U.S. President Ford. 

1953 - The first privately operated atomic reactor opened in Raleigh, NC. 

1957 - Jack Kerouac's "On the Road" was first published. 

1958 - The first color videotaped program was aired. It was "The Betty Freezor Show" on WBTV-TV in Charlotte, NC. 

1958 - Boris Pasternak's "Doctor Zhivago" was published for the first time in the U.S. 

1960 - Cassius Clay of Louisville, KY, won the gold medal in light heavyweight boxing at the Olympic Games in Rome, Italy. Clay later changed his name to Muhammad Ali. 

1961 - The U.S. government made airline hijacking a federal offense. 

1971 - J.R. Richard (Houston Astros) tied Karl Spooner’s record when he struck out 15 batters in his major-league baseball debut. 

1977 - The U.S. launched Voyager 

1980 - The St. Gothard Tunnel opened in Switzerland. It is the world's longest highway tunnel at 10.14 miles long. 

1982 - Eddie Hill set a propeller-driven boat water speed record when he reached 229 mph. 

1983 - U.S. President Reagan denounced the Soviet Union for shooting down a Korean Air Lines. Reagan demanded that the Soviet Union pay reparations for the act that killed 269 people. 

1983 - "Sports Illustrated" became the first national weekly magazine to use four-color process illustrations on every page. 

1983 - The "MacNeil/Lehrer NewsHour" on PBS (Public Broadcasting System) became the first hour-long network news show. 

1984 - The space shuttle Discovery landed after its maiden voyage. 

1984 - Mortimer Zuckerman purchased the newsmagazine, "U.S. News & World Report" for $163 million. 

1985 - Rioting in South Africa spilled into white neighborhoods for the first time. 

1986 - Merv Griffin aired his final program for Metromedia Television after 23 years on various talk shows. 

1986 - NASA launched DOD-1

1989 - Chris Evert retired from professional tennis after a 19 year career. 

1989 - Deborah Norville became the news anchor of the "Today" show. 

1990 - Iraqi President Saddam Hussein urged for a Holy War against the West and former allies. 

1991 - Soviet lawmakers created an interim government to usher in the confederation after dissolving the U.S.S.R. The new name the Union of Sovereign States was taken. 

1992 - A General Motors Corporation strike ended with a new agreement being approved. Nearly 43,000 workers were on strike. 

1995 - France set off an underground nuclear blast in the South Pacific. 

1996 - The play "Summer and Smoke" opened at the Criterion Theatre. 

2001 - Fox News Channel terminated Paula Zahn for breach of contract. 

2003 - In London, magician David Blaine entered a clear plastic box and then suspended by a crane over the banks of the Thames River. He remained there until October 19 surviving only on water. 

September 4

0476 - Romulus Augustulus, the last emperor of the western Roman Empire, was deposed when Odoacer proclaimed himself King of Italy. 

1609 - English navigator Henry Hudson began exploring the island of Manhattan. 

1781 - Los Angeles, CA, was founded by Spanish settlers. The original name was "El Pueblo de Nuestra Senora La Reina de Los Angeles de Porciuncula," which translates as "The Town of the Queen of Angels." 

1825 - New York Governor Clinton ceremoniously emptied a barrel of Lake Erie water in the Atlantic Ocean to consummate the "Marriage of the Waters" of the Great Lakes and the Atlantic. 

1833 - Barney Flaherty answered an ad in "The New York Sun" and became the first newsboy/paperboy at the age of 10. 

1882 - Thomas Edison's Pearl Street electric power station began operations in New York City. It was the first display of a practical electrical lighting system. 

1885 - The Exchange Buffet opened in New York City. It was the first self-service cafeteria in the U.S. 

1886 - Geronimo, and the Apache Indians he led, surrendered in Skeleton Canyon in Arizona to Gen. Nelson Miles. 

1888 - George Eastman registered the name "Kodak" and patented his roll-film camera. The camera took 100 exposures per roll. 

1894 - A strike in New York City by 12,000 tailors took place to protest sweatshops. 

1899 - An 8.3 earthquake hit Yakutat Bar, AK. 

1917 - The American expeditionary force in France suffered its first fatalities in World War I. 

1921 - The first police broadcast was made by radio station WIL in St. Louis, MO. 

1923 - The first American dirigible, the "Shenandoah," began its maiden voyage in Lakehurst, NJ. 

1944 - During World War II, British troops entered the city of Antwerp, Belgium. 

1948 - The Dutch Queen Wilhelmina left her throne for health reasons. 

1949 - The longest pro tennis match in history was played when Pancho Gonzales and Ted Schroeder played 67 games in five sets. 

1951 - The first live, coast-to-coast TV broadcast took place in the U.S. The event took place in San Francisco, CA, from the Japanese Peace Treaty Conference. It was seen all the way to New York City, NY. 

1953 - The New York Yankees became the first baseball team to win five consecutive American League championships. 

1957 - The Arkansas National Guard was ordered by Governor Orval Faubus to keep nine black students from going into Little Rock's Central High School. 

1957 - The Ford Motor Company began selling the Edsel. The car was so unpopular that it was taken off the market only two years. 

1967 - "Gilligan's Island" aired for the last time on CBS-TV. It ran for 98 shows. 

1967 - Michigan Gov. George Romney said during a TV interview that he had undergone "brainwashing" by U.S. officials while visiting Vietnam in 1965. 

1971 - "The Lawrence Welk Show" was seen for the last time on ABC-TV. 

1972 - Swimmer Mark Spitz captured his seventh Olympic gold medal in the 400-meter medley relay event at Munich, Germany. Spitz was the first Olympian to win seven gold medals. 

1981 - The Soviet Union began war games with about 100,000 troops on the Polish border. 

1983 - U.S. officials announced that there had been an American plane, used for reconnaissance, in the vicinity of the Korean Air Lines flight that was shot down. 

1986 - South African security forces halted a mass funeral for the victims of the riot in Soweto. 

1989 - A reconnaissance satellite was released by the Air Force's Titan Three rocket. The Titan Three set over 200 satellites into space between 1964 and 1989. 

1993 - Pope John Paul II started his first visit to the former Soviet Union. 

1993 - Jim Abbott (New York Yankees) pitched a no-hitter. Abbott had been born without a right hand. 

1995 - The Fourth World Conference on Women was opened in Beijing. There were over 4,750 delegates from 181 countries in attendance. 

1998 - In Mexico, bankers stopped approving personal loans and mortgages. 

1998 - The International Monetary Fund approved a $257 million loan for the Ukraine. 

1998 - While in Ireland, U.S. President Clinton said the words "I'm sorry" for the first time about his affair with Monica Lewinsky and described his behavior as indefensible. 

1999 - The United Nations announced that the residents of East Timor had overwhelmingly voted for independence from Indonesia in a referendum held on August 30. In Dili, pro-Indonesian militias attacked independence supporters, burned buildings, blew up bridges and destroyed telecommunication facilities. 

2002 - The Oakland Athletics won their AL-record 20th straight game. The A's gave up an 11-run lead during the game and then won the game on a Scott Hatteberg home run in the bottom of the ninth inning. 

2003 - Keegan Reilly, 22, became the first parapalegic climber to reach the peak of Japan's Mount Fuji.