March 12

1496 - Jews were expelled from Syria. 

1609 - The Bermuda Islands became an English colony. 

1664 - New Jersey became a British colony. King Charles II granted land in the New World to his brother James (The Duke of York). 

1755 - In North Arlington, NJ, the steam engine was used for the first time. 

1789 - The U.S. Post Office was established. 

1809 - Britain signed a treaty with Persia forcing the French to leave the country. 

1857 - "Simon Boccanegra" by Verdi debuted in Venice. 

1884 - The State of Mississippi authorized the first state-supported college for women. It was called the Mississippi Industrial Institute and College. 

1863 - President Jefferson Davis delivered his State of the Confederacy address. 

1879 - The British Zulu War began. 

1889 - Almon B. Stowger applied for a patent for his automatic telephone system. 

1894 - Coca-Cola was sold in bottles for the first time. 

1903 - The Czar of Russia issued a decree providing for nominal freedom of religion throughout his territory. 

1904 - After 30 years of drilling, the tunnel under the Hudson River was completed. The link was between Jersey City, NJ, and New York, NY. 

1905 - In Rome, Premier Giovanni Giolliwas forced out of office by continued civil strife. 

1906 - The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that corporations must yield incriminating evidence in anti-trust suits. 

1909 - The British Parliament increased naval appropriations for Britain. 

1909 - Three U.S. warships were ordered to Nicaragua to stem the conflict with El Salvador. 

1911 - Dr. Fletcher of Rockefeller Institute discovered the cause of infantile paralysis. 

1912 - The Girl Scout organization was founded. The original name was Girl Guides. 

1923 - Dr. Lee DeForest demonstrated phonofilm. It was his technique for putting sound on motion picture film. 

1930 - Ghandi began his 200-mile march to the sea that symbolized his defiance of British rule over India. 

1933 - President Paul von Hindenburg dropped the flag of the German Republic and ordered that the swastika and empire banner be flown side by side. 

1933 - U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt presented his first presidential address to the nation. It was the first of the "Fireside Chats." 

1935 - Parimutuel betting became legal in the State of Nebraska. 

1938 - The "Anschluss" took place as German troops entered Austria. 

1940 - Finland surrendered to Russia ending the Russo-Finnish War. 

1944 - Britain barred all travel to Ireland. 

1947 - U.S. President Truman established the "Truman Doctrine" to help Greece and Turkey resist Communism. 

1959 - The U.S. House joined the U.S. Senate in approving the statehood of Hawaii. 

1966 - Bobby Hull, of the Chicago Blackhawks, became the first National Hockey League (NHL) player to score 51 points in a single season. 

1974 - "Wonder Woman" debuted on ABC-TV. The show later went to CBS-TV. 

1984 - Lebanese President Gemayel opened the second meeting in five years calling for the end to nine-years of war. 

1985 - The U.S. and the U.S.S.R. began arms control talks in Geneva. 

1985 - Larry Bird (Boston Celtics) scored a club-record 60 points against the Atlanta Hawks. 

1985 - Former U.S. President Richard M. Nixon announced that he planned to drop Secret Service protection and hire his own bodyguards in an effort to lower the deficit by $3 million. 

1987 - "Les Miserables" opened on Broadway. 

1989 - Prime Minister Sadiq al Mahdi of Sudan formed a new cabinet to end civil war. 

1989 - About 2,500 veterans and supporters marched at the Art Institute of Chicago to demand that officials remove an American flag placed on the floor as part of an exhibit. 

1992 - Mauritius became a republic but remained a member of the British Commonwealth. 

1993 - In the U.S., the Pentagon called for the closure of 31 major military bases. 

1993 - Janet Reno was sworn in as the first female U.S. attorney general. 

1994 - A photo by Marmaduke Wetherell of the Loch Ness monster was confirmed to be a hoax. The photo was taken of a toy submarine with a head and neck attached. 

1994 - The Church of England ordained its first women priests. 

1998 - Astronomers cancelled a warning that a mile-wide asteroid might collide with Earth saying that calculations had been off by 600,000 miles. 

1999 - Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic became members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). All three countries were members of the former Warsaw Pact. 

2002 - U.S. homeland security chief Tom Ridge unveiled a color-coded system for terror warnings. 

2002 - Conoco and Phillips Petroleum stockholders approved a proposed merger worth $15.6 billion. 

2003 - In Utah, Elizabeth Smart was reunited with her family nine months after she was abducted from her home. She had been taken on June 5, 2002, by a drifter that had previously worked at the Smart home. 

2003 - The U.S. Air Force announced that it would resume reconnaissance flights off the coast of North Korea. The flights had stopped on March 2 after an encounter with four armed North Korean jets. 

2009 - It was announced that the Sear Tower in Chicago, IL, would be renamed Willis Tower. 

2010 - In the U.S., Apple began taking pre-orders for the iPad. 

March 11

537 - The Goths began their siege on Rome. 

1302 - The characters Romeo and Juliet were married this day according to William Shakespeare. 

1649 - The peace of Rueil was signed between the Frondeurs (rebels) and the French government. 

1665 - A new legal code was approved for the Dutch and English towns, guaranteeing religious observances unhindered. 

1702 - The Daily Courant, the first regular English newspaper was published. 

1791 - Samuel Mulliken became the first person to receive more than one patent from the U.S. Patent Office. 

1810 - The Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte was married by proxy to Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria. 

1824 - The U.S. War Department created the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Seneca Indian Ely Parker became the first Indian to lead the Bureau. 

1845 - Seven hundred Maoris led by their chief, Hone-Heke, burned the small town of Kororareka. The act was in protest to the settlement of Maoriland by Europeans, which was a breach of the 1840 Treaty of Waitangi. 

1861 - A Confederate Convention was held in Montgomery, Alabama, where a new constitution was adopted. 

1865 - Union General William Sherman and his forces occupied Fayetteville, NC. 

1867 - In Hawaii, the volcano Great Mauna Loa erupted. 

1882 - The Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association was formed in Princeton, NJ. 

1888 - The "Blizzard of '88" began along the U.S. Atlantic Seaboard shutting down communication and transportation lines. More than 400 people died.(March 11-14) 

1900 - British Prime Minister Lord Salisbury rejected the peace overtures offered from the Boer leader Paul Kruger. 

1901 - Britain rejected an amended treaty to the canal agreement with Nicaragua. 

1901 - U.S. Steel was formed when industrialist J.P. Morgan purchased Carnegie Steep Corp. The event made Andrew Carnegie the world's richest man. 

1905 - The Parisian subway was officially inaugurated. 

1907 - U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt induced California to revoke its anti-Japanese legislation. 

1907 - In Bulgaria, Premier Nicolas Petkov was killed by an anarchist. 

1909 - The first gold medal to a perfect-score bowler was awarded to A.C. Jellison by the American Bowling Congress. 

1927 - Samuel Roxy Rothafel opened the famous Roxy Theatre in New York City. 

1930 - Babe Ruth signed a two-year contract with the New York Yankees for the sum of $80,000. 

1930 - U.S. President Howard Taft became the first U.S. president to be buried in the National Cemetery in Arlington, VA. 

1935 - The German Air Force became an official department of the Reich. 

1941 - U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt authorized the Lend-Lease Act, which authorized the act of providing war supplies to the Allies. 

1946 - Communists and Nationalists began fighting as the Soviets pulled out of Mukden, Manchuria. 

1946 - Pravda denounced Winston Churchill as anti-Soviet and a warmonger. 

1947 - The DuMont network aired "Movies For Small Fry." It was network television's first successful children's program. 

1948 - Reginald Weir became the first black tennis player to participate in a U.S. Indoor Lawn Tennis Association tournament. 

1959 - The Lorraine Hansberry drama A Raisin in the Sun opened at New York's Ethel Barrymore Theater. 

1964 - U.S. Senator Carl Hayden broke the record for continuous service in the U.S. Senate. He had worked 37 years and seven days. 

1965 - The American navy began inspecting Vietnamese junks in an effort to end arms smuggling to the South. 

1969 - Levi-Strauss started selling bell-bottomed jeans. 

1978 - Bobby Hull (Winnipeg Jets) joined Gordie Howe by getting his 1,000th career goal. 

1985 - Mikhail Gorbachev was named the new chairman of the Soviet Communist Party. 

1986 - Popsicle announced its plan to end the traditional twin-stick frozen treat for a one-stick model. 

1988 - A cease-fire was declared in the war between Iran and Iraq. 

1990 - Lithuania declared its independence from the Soviet Union. It was the first Soviet republic to break away from Communist control. 

1990 - In Chile, Patricio Aylwin was sworn in as the first democratically elected president since 1973. 

1992 - Former U.S. President Nixon said that the Bush administration was not giving enough economic aid to Russia. 

1993 - Janet Reno was unanimously confirmed by the U.S. Senate to become the first female attorney general. 

1993 - North Korea withdrew from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty refusing to open sites for inspection. 

1994 - In Chile, Eduardo Frei was sworn in as President. It was the first peaceful transfer of power in Chile since 1970. 

1997 - An explosion at a nuclear waste reprocessing plant caused 35 workers to be exposed to low levels of radioactivity. The incident was the worst in Japan's history. 

1998 - The International Astronomical Union issued an alert that said that a mile-wide asteroid could come very close to, and possibly hit, Earth on Oct. 26, 2028. The next day NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory announced that there was no chance the asteroid would hit Earth. 

2002 - Two columns of light were pointed skyward from ground zero in New York as a temporary memorial to the victims of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. 

March 10

0241 BC - The Roman fleet sank 50 Carthaginian ships in the Battle of Aegusa. 

0049 BC - Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon and invaded Italy. 

1496 - Christopher Columbus concluded his second visit to the Western Hemisphere when he left Hispaniola for Spain. 

1629 - England's King Charles I dissolved Parliament and did not call it back for 11 years. 

1656 - In the American colony of Virginia, suffrage was extended to all free men regardless of their religion. 

1776 - "Common Sense" by Thomas Paine was published. 

1785 - Thomas Jefferson was appointed minister to France. He succeeded Benjamin Franklin. 

1792 - John Stone patented the pile driver. 

1804 - The formal ceremonies transferring the Louisiana Purchase from France to the U.S. took place in St. Louis. 

1806 - The Dutch in Cape Town, South Africa surrendered to the British. 

1814 - In France, Napoleon Bonaparte was defeated by a combined Allied Army at the battle of Laon. 

1848 - The U.S. Senate ratified the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which ended the war with Mexico. 

1849 - Abraham Lincoln applied for a patent for a device to lift vessels over shoals by means of inflated cylinders. 

1864 - Ulysses S. Grant became commander of the Union armies in the U.S. Civil War. 

1876 - Alexander Graham Bell made the first successful call with the telephone. He spoke the words "Mr. Watson, come here, I want to see you." 

1880 - The Salvation Army arrived in the U.S. from England. 

1893 - New Mexico State University canceled its first graduation ceremony because the only graduate was robbed and killed the night before. 

1894 - New York Gov. Roswell P. Flower signed the nation's first dog-licensing law. 

1902 - The Boers of South Africa scored their last victory over the British, when they captured British General Methuen and 200 men.

1902 - Tochangri, Turkey, was entirely wiped out by an earthquake. 

1902 - U.S. Attorney General Philander Knox announced that a suit was being brought against Morgan and Harriman's Northern Securities Company. The suit was enforcement of the Sherman Antitrust Act. Northern Securities loss in court was upheld by the U.S.Supreme Court on March 14, 1904. 

1903 - Harry C. Gammeter patented the multigraph duplicating machine. 

1903 - In New York's harbor, the disease-stricken ship Karmania was quarantined with six dead from cholera. 

1906 - In France, 1,200 miners were buried in an explosion at Courrieres. 

1909 - Britain extracted territorial concessions from Siam and Malaya. 

1910 - Slavery was abolished in China. 

1912 - China became a republic after the overthrow of the Manchu Ch'ing Dynasty. 

1913 - William Knox rolled the first perfect 300 game in tournament competition. 

1924 - The U.S. Supreme Court upheld a New York state law forbidding late-night work for women. 

1927 - Prussia lifted its Nazi ban allowing Adolf Hitler to speak in public. 

1933 - Nevada became the first U.S. state to regulate drugs. 

1940 - W2XBS-TV in New York City aired the first televised opera as it presented scenes from "I Pagliacci". 

1941 - The Brooklyn Dodgers announced that their players would begin wearing batting helmets during the 1941 season. 

1941 - Vichy France threatened to use its navy unless Britain allowed food to reach France. 

1944 - The Irish refused to oust all Axis envoys and denied the accusation of spying on Allied troops. 

1945 - American B-29 bombers attacked Tokyo, Japan, 100,000 were killed. 

1947 - The Big Four met in Moscow to discuss the future of Germany. 

1947 - Poland and Czechoslovakia signed a 20-year mutual aid pact. 

1949 - Nazi wartime broadcaster Mildred E. Gillars, also known as "Axis Sally," was convicted in Washington, DC. Gillars was convicted of treason and served 12 years in prison. 

1953 - North Korean gunners at Wonsan fired upon the USS Missouri. The ship responded by firing 998 rounds at the enemy position. 

1955 - The last broadcast of "The Silver Eagle" was heard on radio. 

1956 - Julie Andrews at the age of 23 made her TV debut in "High Tor" with Bing Crosby and Nancy Olson. 

1959 - "Sweet Bird of Youth", a play by Tennessee Williams, opened in New York City. 

1965 - Walter Matthau and Art Carney opened in "The Odd Couple". It later became a hit on television. 

1966 - The North Vietnamese captured a Green Beret camp at Ashau Valley. 

1966 - France withdrew from NATO's military command to protest U.S. dominance of the alliance and asked NATO to move its headquarters from Paris. 

1969 - James Earl Ray pled guilty in Memphis, TN, to the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. Ray later repudiated the guilty plea and maintained his innocence until his death in April of 1998. 

1971 - The U.S. Senate approved an amendment to lower the voting age to 18. 

1975 - The North Vietnamese Army attacked the South Vietnamese town of Ban Me Thout. 

1980 - Iran's leader, Ayatollah Khomeini, lent his support to the militants holding American hostages in Tehran. 

1981 - The U.S. Postal Service announced an increase in first class postage from 15 to 18 cents. 

1982 - The U.S. banned Libyan oil imports due to their continued support of terrorism. 

1986 - The Wrigley Company, of Chicago, raised the price of its seven-stick pack of Wrigley’s chewing gum from a quarter to 30 cents. 

1987 - The Vatican condemned surrogate parenting as well as test-tube and artificial insemination. 

1990 - Haitian President Prosper Avril was ousted 18 months after seizing power in a coup. 

1991 - "Phase Echo" began. It was the operation to withdraw 540,000 U.S. troops from the Persian Gulf region. 

1994 - White House officials began testifying before a federal grand jury about the Whitewater controversy. 

1995 - U.S. Secretary of State Warren Christopher told Yasser Arafat that he must do more to curb Palestinian terrorists. 

1998 - U.S. troops in the Persian Gulf began receiving the first vaccinations against anthrax. 

2002 - The Associated Press reported that the Pentagon informed the U.S. Congress in January that it was making contingency plans for the possible use of nuclear weapons against countries that threaten the U.S. with weapons of mass destruction, including Iraq and North Korea. 

2003 - North Korea test-fired a short-range missile. The event was one of several in a patter of unusual military maneuvers.

March 9

1454 - Amerigo Vespucci was born in Florence, Italy. Matthias Ringmann, a German mapmaker, named the American continent in his honor. 

1617 - The Treaty of Stolbovo ended the occupation of Northern Russia by Swedish troops. 

1734 - The Russians took Danzig (Gdansk) in Poland. 

1745 - The first carillon was shipped from England to Boston, MA. 

1788 - Connecticut became the 5th state to join the United States. 

1793 - Jean Pierre Blanchard made the first balloon flight in North America. The event was witnessed by U.S. President George Washington. 

1796 - Napoleon Bonaparte and Josephine de Beauharnais were married. They were divorced in 1809. 

1799 - The U.S. Congress contracted with Simeon North, of Berlin, CT, for 500 horse pistols at the price of $6.50 each. 

1812 - Swedish Pomerania was seized by Napoleon. 

1820 - The U.S. Congress passed the Land Act that paved the way for westward expansion of North America. 

1822 - Charles M. Graham received the first patent for artificial teeth. 

1832 - Abraham Lincoln announced that he would run for a political office for the first time. He was unsuccessful in his run for a seat in the Illinois state legislature. 

1839 - The French Academy of Science announced the Daguerreotype photo process. 

1858 - Albert Potts was awarded a patent for the letter box. 

1859 - The National Association of Baseball Players adopted the rule that limited the size of bats to no more than 2-1/2 inches in diameter. 

1860 - The first Japanese ambassador to the U.S. was appointed. 

1862 - During the U.S. Civil War, the ironclads Monitor and Virginia fought to a draw in a five-hour battle at Hampton Roads, Virginia. 

1863 - General Ulysses Grant was appointed commander-in-chief of the Union forces. 

1897 - A patent was issued to William Spinks and William Hoskins for cue chalk. 

1900 - In Germany, women petition Reichstag for the right to take university entrance exams. 

1905 - In Egypt, U.S. archeologist Davies discovered the royal tombs of Tua and Yua. 

1905 - In Manchuria, Japanese troops surrounded 200,000 Russian troops that were retreating from Mudken. 

1905 - In Congo, Belgian Vice Gov. Costermans committed suicide following an investigation of colonial policy. 

1906 - In the Philippines, fifteen Americans and 600 Moros were killed in the last two days of fighting. 

1909 - The French National Assembly passed an income tax bill. 

1910 - Union men urged for a national sympathy strike for miners in Pennsylvania. 

1911 - The funding for five new battleships was added to the British military defense budget. 

1916 - Mexican raiders led by Pancho Villa attacked Columbus, New Mexico. 17 people were killed by the 1,500 horsemen. 

1929 - Eric Krenz became the first athlete to toss the discus over 160 feet. 

1932 - Eamon De Valera was elected president of the Irish Free State and pledged to abolish all loyalty to the British Crown. 

1933 - The U.S. Congress began its 100 days of enacting New Deal legislation. 

1936 - The German press warned that all Jews who vote in the upcoming elections would be arrested. 

1945 - "Those Websters" debuted on CBS radio. 

1945 - During World War II, U.S. B-29 bombers launched incendiary bomb attacks against Japan. 

1946 - The A.F.L. accused Juan Peron of using the army to establish a dictatorship over Argentine labor. 

1949 - The first all-electric dining car was placed in service on the Illinois Central Railroad. 

1954 - WNBT-TV (now WNBC-TV), in New York, broadcast the first local color television commercials. The ad was Castro Decorators of New York City. (New York) 

1956 - British authorities arrested and deported Archbishop Makarios from Cyprus. He was accused of supporting terrorists. 

1957 - Egyptian leader Nasser barred U.N. plans to share the tolls for the use of the Suez Canal. 

1959 - Mattel introduced Barbie at the annual Toy Fair in New York. 

1964 - Production began on the first Ford Mustang. 

1965 - The first U.S. combat troops arrived in South Vietnam. 

1967 - Svetlana Alliluyeva, Josef Stalin's daughter defected to the United States. 

1969 - "The Smothers Brothers' Comedy Hour" was canceled by CBS-TV. 

1975 - Work began on the Alaskan oil pipeline. 

1975 - Iraq launched an offensive against the rebel Kurds. 

1977 - About a dozen armed Hanafi Muslims invaded three buildings in Washington, DC. They killed one person and took more than 130 hostages. The siege ended two days later. 

1983 - The official Soviet news agency TASS says that U.S. President Reagan is full of "bellicose lunatic anti-communism." 

1985 - "Gone With The Wind" went on sale in video stores across the U.S. for the first time. 

1986 - U.S. Navy divers found the crew compartment of the space shuttle Challenger along with the remains of the astronauts. 

1987 - Chrysler Corporation offered to buy American Motors Corporation. 

1989 - The U.S. Senate rejected John Tower as a choice for a cabinet member. It was the first rejection in 30 years. 

1989 - In Maylasia, 30 Asian nations conferred on the issue of "boat people". 

1989 - In the U.S., a strike forced Eastern Airlines into bankruptcy. 

1989 - In the U.S., President George H.W. Bush urged for a mandatory death penalty in drug-related killings. 

1990 - Dr. Antonia Novello was sworn in as the first female and Hispanic surgeon general. 

1993 - Rodney King testified at the federal trial of four Los Angeles police officers accused of violating his civil rights. (California) 

1995 - The Canadian Navy arrested a Spanish trawler for illegally fishing off of Newfoundland. 

2000 - In Norway, the coalition government of Kjell Magne Bondevik resigned as a result of an environmental disp

March 8

1618 - Johann Kepler discovered the third Law of Planetary Motion. 

1702 - England's Queen Anne took the throne upon the death of King William III. 

1782 - The Gnadenhutten massacre took place. About 90 Indians were killed by militiamen in Ohio in retaliation for raids carried out by other Indians. 

1853 - The first bronze statue of Andrew Jackson is unveiled in Washington, DC. 

1855 - A train passed over the first railway suspension bridge at Niagara Falls, NY. 

1862 - The Confederate ironclad "Merrimack" was launched. 

1880 - U.S. President Rutherford B. Hayes declared that the United States would have jurisdiction over any canal built across the isthmus of Panama. 

1887 - The telescopic fishing rod was patented by Everett Horton. 

1894 - A dog license law was enacted in the state of New York. It was the first animal control law in the U.S. 

1904 - The Bundestag in Germany lifted the ban on the Jesuit order of priests. 

1905 - In Russia, it was reported that the peasant revolt was spreading to Georgia. 

1907 - The British House of Commons turned down a women's suffrage bill. 

1909 - Pope Pius X lifted the church ban on interfaith marriages in Hungary. 

1910 - In France, Baroness de Laroche became the first woman to obtain a pilot's license. 

1910 - The King of Spain authorized women to attend universities. 

1911 - In Europe, International Women's Day was celebrated for the first time. 

1911 - British Minister of Foreign Affairs Edward Gray declared that Britain would not support France in the event of a military conflict. 

1917 - Russia's "February Revolution" began with rioting and strikes in St. Petersburg. The revolution was called the "February Revolution" due to Russia's use of the Old Style calendar. 

1917 - The U.S. Senate voted to limit filibusters by adopting the cloture rule. 

1921 - Spanish Premier Eduardo Dato was assassinated while leaving the Parliament in Madrid. 

1921 - French troops occupied Dusseldorf. 

1933 - Self-liquidating scrip money was issued for the first time at Franklin, IN. 

1941 - Martial law was proclaimed in Holland in order to extinguish any anti-Nazi protests. 

1942 - During World War II, Japanese forces captured Rangoon, Burma. 

1943 - Japanese forces attacked American troops on Hill 700 in Bougainville. The battle lasted five days. 

1945 - Phyllis Mae Daley received a commission in the U.S. Navy Nurse Corps. She later became the first African-American nurse to serve duty in World War II. 

1946 - In New York City, the "Journal American" became the first commercial business to receive a helicopter license. 

1946 - The French naval fleet arrived at Haiphong, Vietnam. 

1948 - The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that religious instruction in public schools was unconstitutional. 

1953 - A census bureau report indicated that 239,000 farmers had quit farming over the last 2 years. 

1954 - France and Vietnam opened talks in Paris on a treaty to form the state of Indochina. 

1954 - Herb McKenley set a world record for the quarter mile when he ran the distance in 46.8 seconds. 

1957 - The International Boxing Club was ruled a monopoly putting it in violation of the Sherman Anti-Trust Law. 

1959 - Groucho, Chico and Harpo made their final TV appearance together. 

1961 - Max Conrad circled the globe in a record time of eight days, 18 hours and 49 minutes in the Piper Aztec. 

1965 - The U.S. landed about 3,500 Marines in South Vietnam. They were the first U.S. combat troops to land in Vietnam. 

1966 - Australia announced that it would triple the number of troops in Vietnam. 

1973 - Two bombs exploded near Trafalgar Square in Great Britain. 234 people were injured. 

1982 - The U.S. accused the Soviets of killing 3,000 Afghans with poison gas. 

1985 - The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) reported that 407,700 Americans were millionaires. That was more than double the total from just five years before. 

1986 - Four French television crewmembers were abducted in west Beirut. All four were eventually released. 

1988 - In Fort Campbell, KY, 17 U.S. soldiers were killed when two Army helicopters collided in midair. 

1989 - In Lhasa, Tibet, martial law was declared after three days of protest against Chinese rule. 

1999 - The U.S. Supreme Court upheld the conviction of Timothy McVeigh for the bombing of a federal building in Oklahoma City in 1995. 

1999 - The White House, under President Bill Clinton, directed the firing of nuclear scientist Wen Ho Lee from his job at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The firing was a result of alleged security violations. 

2001 - The U.S. House of Representatives voted for an across-the-board tax cut of nearly $1 trillion over the next decade. 

2005 - In norther Chechnya, Chechen rebel leader Aslan Maskhadov was killed during a raid by Russian forces.