March 17

0461 - Bishop Patrick, St. Patrick, died in Saul. Ireland celebrates this day in his honor. (More about St. Patrick's Day

1756 - St. Patrick's Day was celebrated in New York City for the first time. The event took place at the Crown and Thistle Tavern. 

1766 - Britain repealed the Stamp Act that had caused resentment in the North American colonies. 

1776 - British forces evacuated Boston to Nova Scotia during the Revolutionary War. 

1868 - Postage stamp canceling machine patent was issued. 

1870 - Wellesley College was incorporated by the Massachusetts legislature under its first name, Wellesley Female Seminary. 

1884 - In Otay, California, John Joseph Montgomery made the first manned, controlled, heavier-than-air glider flight in the United States

1886 - 20 Blacks were killed in the Carrollton Massacre in Mississippi. 

1891 - The British steamer Utopia sank off the coast of Gibraltar. 

1901 - In Paris, Vincent Van Gogh's paintings were shown at the Bernheim Gallery. 

1909 - In France, the communications industry was paralyzed by strikes. 

1910 - The Camp Fire Girls organization was founded by Luther and Charlotte Gulick. It was formally presented to the public exactly 2 years later. 

1914 - Russia increased the number of active duty military from 460,000 to 1,700,000. 

1917 - America’s first bowling tournament for ladies began in St. Louis, MO. Almost 100 women participated in the event. 

1930 - Al Capone was released from jail. 

1941 - The National Gallery of Art was officially opened by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt in Washington, DC. 

1942 - Douglas MacArthur became the Supreme Commander of the Allied forces in the Southwestern Pacific. 

1944 - During World War II, the U.S. bombed Vienna. 

1950 - Scientists at the University of California at Berkeley announced that they had created a new radioactive element. They named it "californium". It is also known as element 98. 

1958 - The Vanguard 1 satellite was launched by the U.S. 

1959 - The Dalai Lama (Lhama Dhondrub, Tenzin Gyatso) fled Tibet and went to India. 

1961 - The U.S. increased military aid and technicians to Laos. 

1962 - Moscow asked the U.S. to pull out of South Vietnam. 

1966 - A U.S. submarine found a missing H-bomb in the Mediterranean off of Spain. 

1967 - Snoopy and Charlie Brown of "Peanuts" were on the cover of "LIFE" magazine. 

1969 - Golda Meir was sworn in as the fourth premier of Israel. 

1970 - The U.S. Army charged 14 officers with suppression of facts in the My Lai massacre case. 

1972 - U.S. President Nixon asked Congress to halt busing in order to achieve desegregation. 

1973 - Twenty were killed in Cambodia when a bomb went off that was meant for the Cambodian President Lon Nol. 

1973 - The first American prisoners of war (POWs) were released from the "Hanoi Hilton" in Hanoi, North Vietnam. 

1982 - In El Salvador, four Dutch television crewmembers were killed by government troops. 

1985 - U.S. President Reagan agreed to a joint study with Canada on acid rain. 

1989 - A series of solar flares caused a violent magnetic storm that brought power outages over large regions of Canada. 

1992 - In Buenos Aires, 10 people were killed in a suicide car-bomb attack against the Israeli embassy. 

1992 - White South Africans approved constitutional reforms to give legal equality to blacks. 

1995 - Gerry Adams became the first leader of Sinn Fein to be received at the White House. 

1998 - Washington Mutual announced it had agreed to buy H.F. Ahmanson and Co. for $9.9 billion dollars. The deal created the nation's seventh-largest banking company. 

1999 - A panel of medical experts concluded that marijuana had medical benefits for people suffering from cancer and AIDS. 

1999 - The International Olympic Committee expelled six of its members in the wake of a bribery scandal. 

2000 - In Norway, Jens Stotenberg and the Labour Party took office as Prime Minister. The coalition government of Kjell Magne Bondevik resigned on March 9 as a result of an environmental dispute. 

2000 - In Kanungu, Uganda, a fire at a church linked to the cult known as the Movement for the Restoration of the Ten Commandments killed more than 530. On March 31, officials set the number of deaths linked to the cult at more than 900 after authorities subsequently found mass graves at various sites linked to the cult. 

2007 - Mike Modano (Dallas Stars) scored his 502nd and 503rd career goals making him the all-time U.S. leader in goal-scoring. 

2009 - The iTunes Music Store reached 800 million applications downloaded.

March 16

1190 - The Crusaders began the massacre of Jews in York, England. 

1521 - Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan reached the Philippines. He was killed the next month by natives. 

1527 - The Emperor Babur defeated the Rajputs at the Battle of Kanvaha in India. 

1621 - Samoset walked into the settlement of Plymouth Colony, later Plymouth, MA. Samoset was a native from the Monhegan tribe in Maine who spoke English. He greeted the Pilgrims by saying, "Welcome, Englishmen! My name is Samoset." 

1802 - The U.S. Congress established the West Point Military Academy in New York. 

1836 - The Republic of Texas approved a constitution. 

1850 - The novel "The Scarlet Letter," by Nathaniel Hawthorne, was published for the first time. 

1871 - The State of Delaware enacted the first fertilizer law. 

1882 - The U.S. Senate approved a treaty allowing the United States to join the Red Cross. 

1883 - Susan Hayhurst graduated from the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. She was the first woman pharmacy graduate. 

1907 - The world's largest cruiser, the British Invincible was completed at Glasgow. 

1908 - China released the Japanese steamship Tatsu Maru

1909 - Cuba suffered its first revolt only six weeks after the inauguration of Gomez. 

1913 - The 15,000-ton battleship Pennsylvania was launched at Newport News, VA

1915 - The Federal Trade Commission began operation. 

1917 - Russian Czar Nicholas II abdicated his throne. 

1918 - Tallulah Bankhead made her New York acting debut with a role in "The Squab Farm." 

1926 - Physicist Robert H. Goddard launched the first liquid-fuel rocket. 

1928 - The U.S. planned to send 1,000 more Marines to Nicaragua. 

1935 - Adolf Hitler ordered a German rearmament and violated the Versailles Treaty. 

1939 - Germany occupied the rest of Czechoslovakia. 

1945 - Iwo Jima was declared secure by the Allies. However, small pockets of Japanese resistance still existed. 

1946 - Algerian nationalist leader Ferhat Abbas was freed after spending a year in jail. 

1946 - India called British Premier Attlee's independence off contradictory and a propaganda move. 

1947 - Martial law was withdrawn in Tel Aviv. 

1950 - Congress voted to remove federal taxes on oleomargarine. 

1964 - Paul Hornung and Alex Karras were reinstated to the NFL after an 11-month suspension for betting on football games. 

1964 - U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson submitted a $1 billion war on poverty program to Congress. 

1968 - U.S. troops in Vietnam destroyed a village consisting mostly of women and children. The event is known as the My-Lai massacre. 

1978 - Italian politician Aldo Moro was kidnapped by left-wing urban guerrillas. Moro was later murdered by the group. 

1982 - Russia announced they would halt their deployment of new nuclear missiles in Western Europe. 

1984 - Mozambique and South Africa signed a pact banning the support for one another's internal enemies. 

1984 - William Buckley, the CIA station chief in Beirut, was kidnapped by gunmen. He died while in captivity. 

1985 - "A Chorus Line" played its 4,000 performance. 

1985 - Terry Anderson, an Associated Press newsman, was taken hostage in Beirut. He was released in December 4, 1991. 

1987 - "Bostonia" magazine printed an English translation of Albert Einstein’s last high school report card. 

1988 - Indictments were issued for Lt. Colonel Oliver North, Vice Admiral John Poindexter of the National Security Council, and two others for their involvement in the Iran-Contra affair. 

1988 - Mickey Thompson and his wife Trudy were shot to death in their driveway. Thompson, known as the "Speed King," set nearly 500 auto speed endurance records including being the first person to travel more than 400 mph on land. 

1989 - In the U.S.S.R., the Central Committee approved Gorbachev's agrarian reform plan. 

1989 - The Soviet Communist Party's Central Committee approved large-scale agricultural reforms and elected the party's 100 members to the Congress of People's Deputies. 

1993 - In France, ostrich meat was officially declared fit for human consumption. 

1994 - Tonya Harding pled guilty in Portland, OR, to conspiracy to hinder prosecution for covering up the attack on her skating rival Nancy Kerrigan. She was fined $100,000. She was also banned from amateur figure skating. 

1994 - Russia agreed to phase out production of weapons-grade plutonium. 

1995 - NASA astronaut Norman Thagard became the first American to visit the Russian space station Mir. 

1998 - Rwanda began mass trials for 1994 genocide with 125,000 suspects for 500,000 murders. 

1999 - The 20 members of the European Union's European Commission announced their resignations amid allegations of corruption and financial mismanagement.

March 15

44 BC - Roman Emperor Julius Caesar was assassinated by high ranking Roman Senators. The day is known as the "Ides of March." 

1341 - During the Hundred Years War, an alliance was signed between Roman Emperor Louis IV and France's Philip VI. 

1493 - Christopher Columbus returned to Spain after his first New World voyage. 

1778 - In command of two frigates, the Frenchman la Perouse sailed east from Botany Bay for the last lap of his voyage around the world. 

1781 - During the American Revolution, the Battle of Guilford Courthouse took place in North Carolina. British General Cornwallis' 1,900 soldiers defeated an American force of 4,400. 

1820 - Maine was admitted as the 23rd state of the Union. 

1862 - General John Hunt Morgan began four days of raids near the city of Gallatin, TN

1864 - Red River Campaign began as the Union forces reach Alexandria, LA

1875 - The Roman Catholic Archbishop of New York, John McCloskey, was named the first American cardinal. 

1877 - The first cricket test between Australia and England was played in Melbourne. Australia won by 45 runs. 

1892 - New York State unveiled the new automatic ballot voting machine. 

1892 - Jesse W. Reno patented the Reno Inclined Elevator. It was the first escalator. 

1900 - In Paris, Sarah Bernhardt starred in the premiere of Edmond Rostand's "L'Aiglon." 

1901 - German Chancellor von Bulow declared that an agreement between Russia and China over Manchuria would violate the Anglo-German accord of October 1900. 

1902 - In Boston, MA, 10,000 freight handlers went back to work after a weeklong strike. 

1903 - The British conquest of Nigeria was completed. 500,000 square miles were now controlled by the U.K. 

1904 - Three hundred Russians were killed as the Japanese shelled Port Arthur in Korea. 

1907 - In Finland, woman won their first seats in the Finnish Parliament. They took their seats on May 23. 

1909 - Italy proposed a European conference on the Balkans. 

1910 - Otto Kahn offered $500,000 for a family portrait by Dutch artist Frans Hals. Kahn had outbid J.P. Morgan for the work. 

1913 - U.S. President Woodrow Wilson held the first open presidential news conference. 

1916 - U.S. President Woodrow Wilson sent 12,000 troops, under General Pershing, over the border of Mexico to pursue bandit Pancho Villa. The mission failed. 

1917 - Russian Czar Nicholas II abdicated himself and his son. His brother Grand Duke succeeded as czar. 

1919 - The American Legion was founded in Paris. 

1922 - Fuad I assumed the title of king of Egypt after the country gained nominal independence from Britain. 

1934 - Henry Ford restored the $5 a day wage. 

1935 - Joseph Goebbels, German Minister of Propaganda banned four Berlin newspapers. 

1937 - In Chicago, IL, the first blood bank to preserve blood for transfusion by refrigeration was established at the Cook County Hospital. 

1938 - Oil was discovered in Saudi Arabia. 

1939 - German forces occupied Bohemia and Moravia, and part of Czechoslovakia. 

1944 - Cassino, Italy, was destroyed by Allied bombing. 

1946 - British Premier Attlee offered India full independence after agreement on a constitution. 

1948 - Sir Laurence Olivier was on the cover of "LIFE" magazine for his starring role in Shakespeare’s "Hamlet." 

1949 - Clothes rationing in Great Britain ended nearly four years after the end of World War II. 

1951 - General de Lattre demanded that Paris send him more troops for the fight in Vietnam. 

1951 - The Persian parliament voted to nationalize the oil industry. 

1954 - CBS television debuted its "Morning Show." 

1955 - The U.S. Air Force unveiled a self-guided missile. 

1956 - The musical "My Fair Lady" opened on Broadway. 

1960 - Ten nations met in Geneva to discuss disarmament. 

1960 - The first underwater park was established as Key Largo Coral Reef Preserve. 

1964 - In Montreal, Richard Burton and Elizabeth Taylor were married. 

1968 - The U.S. mint halted the practice of buying and selling gold. 

1970 - The musical "Purlie" opened on Broadway in New York City. 

1971 - CBS television announced it was going to drop "The Ed Sullivan Show." 

1977 - The first episode of "Eight is Enough" was aired on ABC-TV. 

1977 - The U.S. House of Representatives began a 90-day test to determine the feasibility of showing its sessions on television. 

1979 - Pope John Paul II published his first encyclical "Redemptor Hominis." In the work he warned of the growing gap between the rich and poor. 

1982 - Nicaragua's ruling junta proclaimed a month-long state of siege and suspended the nation's constitution for one day. This came a day after anti-government rebels destroyed two bridges near the Honduran border. 

1985 - In Brazil, two decades of military rule came to an end with the installation of a civilian government. 

1989 - The U.S. Food and Drug administration decided to impound all fruit imported from Chili after two cyanide-tainted grapes were found in Philadelphia, PA

1989 - The U.S. Department of Veteran's Affairs became the 14th Department in the President's Cabinet. 

1990 - In Iraq, British journalist Farzad Bazoft was hanged for spying. 

1990 - Mikhail Gorbachev was elected the first executive president of the Soviet Union. 

1990 - The Ford Explorer was introduced to the public. 

1990 - The Soviet parliament ruled that Lithuania's declaration of independence was invalid and that Soviet law was still in force in the Baltic republic. 

1991 - Four Los Angeles police officers were indicted in the beating of Rodney King on March 3, 1991. (California

1991 - Yugoslav President Borisav Jovic resigned after about a week of anit-communist protests. 

1994 - U.S. President Clinton extended the moratorium on nuclear testing until September of 1995. 

1996 - The aviation firm Fokker NV collapsed. 

1998 - More than 15,000 ethnic Albanians marched in Yugoslavia to demand independence for Kosovo. 

1998 - CBS' "60 Minutes" aired an interview with former White House employee Kathleen Willey. Wiley said U.S. President Clinton made unwelcome sexual advances toward her in the Oval Office in 1993. 

2002 - Libyan Abdel Baset Ali Mohmed Al-Megrahi began his life sentence in a Scottish jail for his role in the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 on December 21, 1988. 

2002 - In the U.S., Burger King began selling a veggie burger. The event was billed as the first veggie burger to be sold nationally by a fast food chain. 

2002 - In Texas, Andrea Yates received a life sentence for drowning her five children on June 20, 2001. 

2002 - U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell told the Associated Press that the U.S. would stand by a 24-year pledge not to use nuclear arms against states that don't have them. 

2004 - Clive Woodall's novel "One for Sorrow: Two for Joy" was published. Two days later Woodall sold the film rights to Walt Disney Co. for $1 million.

March 14

1489 - Catherine Cornaro, Queen of Cyprus, sold her kingdom to Venice. She was the last of the Lusignan dynasty. 

1629 - A Royal charter was granted to the Massachusetts Bay Colony. 

1647 - During the Thirty Years War, France, Sweden, Bavaria and Cologne signed a Treaty of Neutrality. 

1743 - First American town meeting was held at Boston's Faneuil Hall. 

1757 - British Admiral John Byng was executed by a firing squad on board HMS Monarch for neglect of duty. 

1794 - Eli Whitney received a patent for his cotton gin. 

1864 - Samuel Baker discovered another source of the Nile in East Africa. He named it Lake Albert Nyanza. 

1891 - The submarine Monarch laid telephone cable along the bottom of the English Channel to prepare for the first telephone links across the Channel. 

1900 - U.S. currency went on the gold standard with the ratification of the Gold Standard Act. 

1900 - In Holland, Botanist Hugo de Vries rediscovered Mendel's laws of heredity. 

1901 - Utah Governor Heber M. Wells vetoed a bill that would have relaxed restrictions on polygamy. 

1903 - The U.S. Senate ratified the Hay-Herran Treaty that guaranteed the U.S. the right to build a canal at Panama. The Columbian Senate rejected the treaty. 

1904 - The U.S. Supreme Court upheld the governments claim that the Northern Securities Company was an illegal merger between the Great Northern and Northern Pacific Railway companies. 

1905 - French bankers refused to lend money to Russia until after their war. 

1905 - The British House of Commons cited a need to compete with Germany in naval strength. 

1906 - The island of Ustica was devastated by an earthquake. 

1912 - An anarchist named Antonio Dalba unsuccessfully attempted to kill Italy's King Victor Emmanuel III in Rome. 

1914 - Henry Ford announced the new continuous motion method to assemble cars. The process decreased the time to make a car from 12½ hours to 93 minutes. 

1915 - The British Navy sank the German battleship Dresden off the Chilean coast. 

1918 - An all-Russian Congress of Soviets ratified a peace treaty with the Central Powers. 

1923 - President Harding became the first U.S. President to file an income tax report. 

1932 - George Eastman, the founder of the Kodak company, committed suicide. 

1936 - Adolf Hitler told a crowd of 300,000 that Germany's only judge is God and itself. 

1939 - Hungary occupied the Carpatho-Ukraine. Slovakia declared its independence. 

1943 - U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt became the first U.S. President to fly in an airplane while in office. 

1945 - In Germany, a 22,000 pound "Grand Slam" bomb was dropped by the Royal Air Force Dumbuster Squad on the Beilefeld railway viaduct. It was the heaviest bomb used during World War II. 

1947 - The U.S. signed a 99-year lease on naval bases in the Philippines. 

1947 - Moscow announced that 890,532 German POWs were held in the U.S.S.R. 

1951 - U.N. forces recaptured Seoul for the second time during the Korean War. 

1954 - The Viet Minh launched an assault on Dien Bien Phu in Saigon. 

1958 - The U.S. government suspended arms shipments to the Batista government of Cuba. 

1964 - A Dallas jury found Jack Ruby guilty of the murder of Lee Harvey Oswald. 

1967 - John F. Kennedy's body was moved from a temporary grave to a permanent one. 

1976 - Egypt formally abrogated the 1971 Treaty Friendship and Cooperation with the Soviet Union. 

1978 - An Israeli force of 22,000 invaded south Lebanon. The PLO bases were hit. 

1979 - The Census Bureau reported that 95% of all Americans were married or would get married. 

1979 - Near Peking, China, at least 200 people died when a Trident aircraft crashed into a factory. 

1980 - A Polish airliner crashed while making an emergency landing near Warsaw. 87 people were killed. A 14-man U.S. boxing team was aboard the plane. 

1981 - Three Pakistani airline hijackers surrendered in Syria after they had exchanged 100 passengers and crewmen for 54 Pakistani prisoners. 

1983 - OPEC agreed to cut its oil prices by 15% for the first time in its 23-year history. 



1989 - Imported assault guns were banned in the U.S. under President George H.W. Bush. 

1991 - The "Birmingham Six," imprisoned for 16 years for their alleged part in an IRA pub bombing, were set free after a court agreed that the police fabricated evidence. 

1991 - Bolivian interior minister Guillermo Capobianco resigned after U.S. officials accused him of receiving money from drug traffickers. 

1995 - American astronaut Norman Thagard became the first American to enter space aboard a Russian rocket. 

1996 - U.S. President Bill Clinton committed $100 million for an anti-terrorism pact with Israel to track down and root out Islamic militants. 

1998 - An earthquake left 10,000 homeless in southeastern Iran. 

2002 - A Scottish appeals court upheld the conviction of a Libyan intelligence agent for the 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103. A five-judge court ruled unanimously that Abdel Basset Ali al-Megrahi was guilty of bringing down the plane over Lockerbie, Scotland. 

2003 - Robert Blake was released from jail on $1.5 million bail. Blake had been jailed for the murder of his wife Bonny Lee Bakley1489 - Catherine Cornaro, Queen of Cyprus, sold her kingdom to Venice. She was the last of the Lusignan dynasty. 

1629 - A Royal charter was granted to the Massachusetts Bay Colony. 

1647 - During the Thirty Years War, France, Sweden, Bavaria and Cologne signed a Treaty of Neutrality. 

1743 - First American town meeting was held at Boston's Faneuil Hall. 

1757 - British Admiral John Byng was executed by a firing squad on board HMS Monarch for neglect of duty. 

1794 - Eli Whitney received a patent for his cotton gin. 

1864 - Samuel Baker discovered another source of the Nile in East Africa. He named it Lake Albert Nyanza. 

1891 - The submarine Monarch laid telephone cable along the bottom of the English Channel to prepare for the first telephone links across the Channel. 

1900 - U.S. currency went on the gold standard with the ratification of the Gold Standard Act. 

1900 - In Holland, Botanist Hugo de Vries rediscovered Mendel's laws of heredity. 

1901 - Utah Governor Heber M. Wells vetoed a bill that would have relaxed restrictions on polygamy. 

1903 - The U.S. Senate ratified the Hay-Herran Treaty that guaranteed the U.S. the right to build a canal at Panama. The Columbian Senate rejected the treaty. 

1904 - The U.S. Supreme Court upheld the governments claim that the Northern Securities Company was an illegal merger between the Great Northern and Northern Pacific Railway companies. 

1905 - French bankers refused to lend money to Russia until after their war. 

1905 - The British House of Commons cited a need to compete with Germany in naval strength. 

1906 - The island of Ustica was devastated by an earthquake. 

1912 - An anarchist named Antonio Dalba unsuccessfully attempted to kill Italy's King Victor Emmanuel III in Rome. 

1914 - Henry Ford announced the new continuous motion method to assemble cars. The process decreased the time to make a car from 12½ hours to 93 minutes. 

1915 - The British Navy sank the German battleship Dresden off the Chilean coast. 

1918 - An all-Russian Congress of Soviets ratified a peace treaty with the Central Powers. 

1923 - President Harding became the first U.S. President to file an income tax report. 

1932 - George Eastman, the founder of the Kodak company, committed suicide. 

1936 - Adolf Hitler told a crowd of 300,000 that Germany's only judge is God and itself. 

1939 - Hungary occupied the Carpatho-Ukraine. Slovakia declared its independence. 

1943 - U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt became the first U.S. President to fly in an airplane while in office. 

1945 - In Germany, a 22,000 pound "Grand Slam" bomb was dropped by the Royal Air Force Dumbuster Squad on the Beilefeld railway viaduct. It was the heaviest bomb used during World War II. 

1947 - The U.S. signed a 99-year lease on naval bases in the Philippines. 

1947 - Moscow announced that 890,532 German POWs were held in the U.S.S.R. 

1951 - U.N. forces recaptured Seoul for the second time during the Korean War. 

1954 - The Viet Minh launched an assault on Dien Bien Phu in Saigon. 

1958 - The U.S. government suspended arms shipments to the Batista government of Cuba. 

1964 - A Dallas jury found Jack Ruby guilty of the murder of Lee Harvey Oswald. 

1967 - John F. Kennedy's body was moved from a temporary grave to a permanent one. 

1976 - Egypt formally abrogated the 1971 Treaty Friendship and Cooperation with the Soviet Union. 

1978 - An Israeli force of 22,000 invaded south Lebanon. The PLO bases were hit. 

1979 - The Census Bureau reported that 95% of all Americans were married or would get married. 

1979 - Near Peking, China, at least 200 people died when a Trident aircraft crashed into a factory. 

1980 - A Polish airliner crashed while making an emergency landing near Warsaw. 87 people were killed. A 14-man U.S. boxing team was aboard the plane. 

1981 - Three Pakistani airline hijackers surrendered in Syria after they had exchanged 100 passengers and crewmen for 54 Pakistani prisoners. 

1983 - OPEC agreed to cut its oil prices by 15% for the first time in its 23-year history. 



1989 - Imported assault guns were banned in the U.S. under President George H.W. Bush. 

1991 - The "Birmingham Six," imprisoned for 16 years for their alleged part in an IRA pub bombing, were set free after a court agreed that the police fabricated evidence. 

1991 - Bolivian interior minister Guillermo Capobianco resigned after U.S. officials accused him of receiving money from drug traffickers. 

1995 - American astronaut Norman Thagard became the first American to enter space aboard a Russian rocket. 

1996 - U.S. President Bill Clinton committed $100 million for an anti-terrorism pact with Israel to track down and root out Islamic militants. 

1998 - An earthquake left 10,000 homeless in southeastern Iran. 

2002 - A Scottish appeals court upheld the conviction of a Libyan intelligence agent for the 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103. A five-judge court ruled unanimously that Abdel Basset Ali al-Megrahi was guilty of bringing down the plane over Lockerbie, Scotland. 

2003 - Robert Blake was released from jail on $1.5 million bail. Blake had been jailed for the murder of his wife Bonny Lee Bakley1489 - Catherine Cornaro, Queen of Cyprus, sold her kingdom to Venice. She was the last of the Lusignan dynasty. 

1629 - A Royal charter was granted to the Massachusetts Bay Colony. 

1647 - During the Thirty Years War, France, Sweden, Bavaria and Cologne signed a Treaty of Neutrality. 

1743 - First American town meeting was held at Boston's Faneuil Hall. 

1757 - British Admiral John Byng was executed by a firing squad on board HMS Monarch for neglect of duty. 

1794 - Eli Whitney received a patent for his cotton gin. 

1864 - Samuel Baker discovered another source of the Nile in East Africa. He named it Lake Albert Nyanza. 

1891 - The submarine Monarch laid telephone cable along the bottom of the English Channel to prepare for the first telephone links across the Channel. 

1900 - U.S. currency went on the gold standard with the ratification of the Gold Standard Act. 

1900 - In Holland, Botanist Hugo de Vries rediscovered Mendel's laws of heredity. 

1901 - Utah Governor Heber M. Wells vetoed a bill that would have relaxed restrictions on polygamy. 

1903 - The U.S. Senate ratified the Hay-Herran Treaty that guaranteed the U.S. the right to build a canal at Panama. The Columbian Senate rejected the treaty. 

1904 - The U.S. Supreme Court upheld the governments claim that the Northern Securities Company was an illegal merger between the Great Northern and Northern Pacific Railway companies. 

1905 - French bankers refused to lend money to Russia until after their war. 

1905 - The British House of Commons cited a need to compete with Germany in naval strength. 

1906 - The island of Ustica was devastated by an earthquake. 

1912 - An anarchist named Antonio Dalba unsuccessfully attempted to kill Italy's King Victor Emmanuel III in Rome. 

1914 - Henry Ford announced the new continuous motion method to assemble cars. The process decreased the time to make a car from 12½ hours to 93 minutes. 

1915 - The British Navy sank the German battleship Dresden off the Chilean coast. 

1918 - An all-Russian Congress of Soviets ratified a peace treaty with the Central Powers. 

1923 - President Harding became the first U.S. President to file an income tax report. 

1932 - George Eastman, the founder of the Kodak company, committed suicide. 

1936 - Adolf Hitler told a crowd of 300,000 that Germany's only judge is God and itself. 

1939 - Hungary occupied the Carpatho-Ukraine. Slovakia declared its independence. 

1943 - U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt became the first U.S. President to fly in an airplane while in office. 

1945 - In Germany, a 22,000 pound "Grand Slam" bomb was dropped by the Royal Air Force Dumbuster Squad on the Beilefeld railway viaduct. It was the heaviest bomb used during World War II. 

1947 - The U.S. signed a 99-year lease on naval bases in the Philippines. 

1947 - Moscow announced that 890,532 German POWs were held in the U.S.S.R. 

1951 - U.N. forces recaptured Seoul for the second time during the Korean War. 

1954 - The Viet Minh launched an assault on Dien Bien Phu in Saigon. 

1958 - The U.S. government suspended arms shipments to the Batista government of Cuba. 

1964 - A Dallas jury found Jack Ruby guilty of the murder of Lee Harvey Oswald. 

1967 - John F. Kennedy's body was moved from a temporary grave to a permanent one. 

1976 - Egypt formally abrogated the 1971 Treaty Friendship and Cooperation with the Soviet Union. 

1978 - An Israeli force of 22,000 invaded south Lebanon. The PLO bases were hit. 

1979 - The Census Bureau reported that 95% of all Americans were married or would get married. 

1979 - Near Peking, China, at least 200 people died when a Trident aircraft crashed into a factory. 

1980 - A Polish airliner crashed while making an emergency landing near Warsaw. 87 people were killed. A 14-man U.S. boxing team was aboard the plane. 

1981 - Three Pakistani airline hijackers surrendered in Syria after they had exchanged 100 passengers and crewmen for 54 Pakistani prisoners. 

1983 - OPEC agreed to cut its oil prices by 15% for the first time in its 23-year history. 



1989 - Imported assault guns were banned in the U.S. under President George H.W. Bush. 

1991 - The "Birmingham Six," imprisoned for 16 years for their alleged part in an IRA pub bombing, were set free after a court agreed that the police fabricated evidence. 

1991 - Bolivian interior minister Guillermo Capobianco resigned after U.S. officials accused him of receiving money from drug traffickers. 

1995 - American astronaut Norman Thagard became the first American to enter space aboard a Russian rocket. 

1996 - U.S. President Bill Clinton committed $100 million for an anti-terrorism pact with Israel to track down and root out Islamic militants. 

1998 - An earthquake left 10,000 homeless in southeastern Iran. 

2002 - A Scottish appeals court upheld the conviction of a Libyan intelligence agent for the 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103. A five-judge court ruled unanimously that Abdel Basset Ali al-Megrahi was guilty of bringing down the plane over Lockerbie, Scotland. 

2003 - Robert Blake was released from jail on $1.5 million bail. Blake had been jailed for the murder of his wife Bonny Lee Bakley.

March 13

0483 - St. Felix III began his reign as Pope. 

0607 - The 12th recorded passage of Halley's Comet occurred. 

1519 - Cortez landed in Mexico. 

1639 - Harvard University was named for clergyman John Harvard. 

1660 - A statute was passed limiting the sale of slaves in the colony of Virginia. 

1777 - The U.S. Congress ordered its European envoys to appeal to high-ranking foreign officers to send troops to reinforce the American army. 

1781 - Sir William Herschel discovered the planet Uranus. 

1852 - The New York "Lantern" newspaper published the first "Uncle Sam cartoon". It was drawn by Frank Henry Bellew. 

1861 - Jefferson Davis signed a bill authorizing slaves to be used as soldiers for the Confederacy. 

1868 - The U.S. Senate began the impeachment trial of President Andrew Johnson. 

1877 - Chester Greenwood patented the earmuff. 

1878 - The first collegiate golf match was played between Oxford and Cambridge. 

1884 - Standard time was adopted throughout the U.S. 

1900 - In South Africa, British Gen. Roberts took Bloemfontein. 

1901 - Andrew Carnegie announced that he was retiring from business and that he would spend the rest of his days giving away his fortune. His net worth was estimated at $300 million. 

1902 - In Poland, schools were shut down across the country when students refused to sing the Russian hymn "God Protect the Czar."

1902 - Andrew Carnegie approved 40 applications from libraries for donations. 

1908 - The people of Jerusalem saw an automobile for the first time. The owner was Charles Glidden of Boston. 

1911 - The U.S. Supreme Court approved corporate tax law. 

1915 - The Germans repelled a British expeditionary force attack in France. 

1918 - Women were scheduled to march in the St. Patrick's Day Parade in New York due to a shortage of men due to wartime. 

1925 - A law in Tennessee prohibited the teaching of evolution. 

1930 - It was announced that the planet Pluto had been discovered by scientist Clyde Tombaugh at the Lowell Observatory. 

1933 - U.S. banks began to re-open after a "holiday" that had been declared by President Roosevelt. 

1935 - Three-thousand-year-old archives were found in Jerusalem confirming some biblical history. 

1940 - The war between Russia and Finland ended with the signing of a treaty in Moscow. 

1941 - Adolf Hitler issued an edict calling for an invasion of the U.S.S.R. 

1942 - Julia Flikke of the Nurse Corps became the first woman colonel in the U.S. Army. 

1943 - Japanese forces ended their attack on the American troops on Hill 700 in Bougainville. 

1946 - Reports from Iran indicated that Soviet tanks units were stationed 20 miles from Tehran. 

1946 - Premier Tito seized wartime collaborator General Draja Mikhailovich in a cave in Yugoslavia. 

1951 - Israel demanded $1.5 billion in German reparations for the cost of caring for war refugees. 

1951 - The comic strip "Dennis the Menace" appeared for the first time in newspapers across the country. 

1957 - Jimmy Hoffa was arrested by the FBI on bribery charges. 

1963 - China invited Soviet President Khrushchev to visit Peking. 

1969 - The Apollo 9 astronauts returned to Earth after the conclusion of a mission that included the successful testing of the Lunar Module. 

1970 - Cambodia ordered Hanoi and Viet Cong troops to leave. 

1970 - Digital Equipment Corp. introduced the PDP-11 minicomputer. 

1972 - "The Merv Griffin Show" debuted in syndication for Metromedia Television. 

1974 - The U.S. Senate voted 54-33 to restore the death penalty. 

1974 - An embargo imposed by Arab oil-producing countries was lifted. 

1980 - A jury in Winamac, IN, found Ford Motor Company innocent of reckless homicide in the deaths of three young women that had been riding in a Ford Pinto. 

1988 - The board of trustees off Gallaudet University in Washington, DC, chose I. King Jordan to be its first deaf president. The college is a liberal arts college for the hearing-impaired. 

1990 - The U.S. lifted economic sanctions against Nicaragua. 

1991 - Exxon paid $1 billion in fines and for the clean-up of the Alaskan oil spill. 

1995 - The first United Nations World Summit on Social Development concluded in Copenhagen, Denmark. 

1997 - Sister Nirmala was chosen by India's Missionaries of Charity to succeed Mother Teresa as leader of the Catholic order. 

2002 - Fox aired "Celebrity Boxing." Tonya Harding beat Paula Jones, Danny Banaduce beat Barry Williams and Todd Bridges defeated Vanilla Ice. 

2003 - Japan sent a destroyer to the Sea of Japan amid reports that North Korea was planning to test an intermediate-range ballistic missile. 

2003 - A report in the journal "Nature" reported that scientists had found 350,000-year-old human footprints in Italy. The 56 prints were made by three early, upright-walking humans that were descending the side of a volcano.